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   Punishment

   Punishment is used to help decrease the probability that a specific undesired behavior will occur with the delivery of a consequence immediately after the undesired response/behavior is exhibited. When people hear that punishment procedures are being used,

   Positive punishment works by presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future.

   Positive punishment example: During a meeting or while in class, your cell phone starts ringing, you are lectured on why it is not okay to have your phone on.

   Negative punishment, punishment by removal, or type II punishment, happens when a certain desired stimulus/item is removed after a particular undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in the behavior happening less often in the future. As with reinforcement, it is not usually necessary to speak of positive and negative in regard to punishment.

   Negative punishment example: For a child that really enjoys a specific class, such as gym or music classes at school, negative punishment can happen if they are removed from that class and sent to the principalís office because they were acting out/misbehaving.

   Reinforcement

   Positive reinforcement works by presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future.

   Negative reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence.

   Negative reinforcement should not be thought of as a punishment procedure. With negative reinforcement, you are increasing a behavior, whereas with punishment, you are decreasing a behavior.