Practice test for Consciousness  

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions & are selected 
to represent the type of question you should expect on exams. Exam questions, 
however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in 
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Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. 

1. Jane is aware that she is sitting in her psychology class and it is almost lunchtime. 
She is also aware of how tired she is since staying up late to watch a movie. Thus, if 
Jane is aware of what is going on around her and what is going on within her, then 
 it is safe to say that she is in a(an)

•  state of waking consciousness. 
 •  altered state of consciousness. 
  •  unconsciousness. 
   •  preconsciousness.
2. What part of the brain is influential in determining when to sleep? 

•  hippocampus 
 •  hypothalamus 
  •  thalamus 
   •  frontal lobe  
3. Consciousness can be defined as 

•  the process by which a sensation becomes a perception. 
  •  the cognitive reflection of the physical events one encounters.  
   •  introspective thinking which results in mental experiences. 
    •  the quality or state of being aware especially of something within oneself.

4. How many times a day is your body programmed to feel sleepy? 

•  one 
 •  two 
  •  three 
   •  four  
5. Which of the following groups needs up to 13 hours of sleep per night? 

•  School-aged children 
 •  Preschoolers 
  •  Adolescents 
   •  Adults

6. Carlos is pulling an all-nighter in preparation for his big psychology class tomorrow. According to 
the research, what is the result on Carlos's memory when he deprives himself of sleep the night 
prior to his exam?

•  Carlos will retain information from staying up all night, but only if his test is early 
    in the morning. 
 •  The ability to retain information can be influenced by the presence of sunlight. 
     Thus, if the sun is shining, Carlos will remember more than if it is a cloudy day. 
  •  Carlos will actually remember less if he deprives himself of sleep the night before. 
   •  Carlos's memory will not be affected in any way assuming he only stays awake for 
       one all-night study session.

7. The two states of sleep are REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM (non-rapid eye movement). 
How many stages of NREM (Rechtschaffen and Kales (R&K) standardization of 1968) 
sleep are there?

•  three 
 •  four 
  •  five 
   •  six 

8. Your uncle Karl, who recently retired, has mentioned how he doesn't sleep as well as he 
did when he was younger. For many years, he regularly slept about 7-8 hours, but now that 
he is in his 60's he tends to get only 5-6 hours of sleep per night. What would you tell him?

•  Getting less sleep seems to be a common consequence of aging. 
 •  Getting less sleep as we age is not normal, since studies show that we need 
      more sleep as we age. 
  •  Getting less sleep is dangerous as we age. People should seek medical intervention 
       to help the sleep. 
   •  Getting less sleep is associated with mental health problems in our later years. 
       Uncle Karl should consider seeing a psychologist.

9. Which of the following can result from not getting enough sleep?

•  Diarrhea 
 •  Blurred vision 
  •  Low-grade fever 
   •  All of the above

10. You find yourself driving very late at night. As you are driving you realize that you 
actually were falling off to sleep for a couple of seconds. Such a phenomenon 
is known as 

•  microsleep. 
 •  daydreaming. 
  •  circadian rhythms. 
   •  hypnic jerk. 
11. Studies have found that certain chemicals that help repair damaged cells only 
function while we sleep. What theory best explains this? 

•  circadian rhythm of sleep 
 •  adaptive theory of sleep 
  •  restorative theory of sleep 
   •  sleep deprivation theory

12. Sleep disorders and chronic sleep loss have been linked to which of the following? 

•  Heart disease 
 •  Stroke 
  •  High blood pressure 
   •  All of the above

13. In which stages of sleep do sleep spindles occur? 

•  N1 (NREM Stage 1) 
 •  N2 (NREM Stage 2) 
  •  N3 (NREM Stage 3) 
   •  REM

14. Josef has had a very demanding day. Through his work is not physically challenging, 
it tends to mentally drain him. What type of sleep will Josef probably require more of?

•  N1 (NREM Stage 1) 
 •  N2 (NREM Stage 2) 
  •  N3 (NREM Stage 3) 
   •  REM

15. Your Doctor has told you that your youngest son suffers from somnambulism. 
What is another name for somnambulism? 

•  insomnia 
 •  sleepwalking 
  •  sleep apnea 
   •  narcolepsy

16. Sleepwalking may include other complex activities, such as: 

•  Driving a car 
 •  Moving furniture 
  •  Eating 
   •  All of the above

17. Sleep apnea is characterized by pauses in breathing while you sleep. 
These pauses can occur how many times per hour? 

•  Up to 5 times 
 •  Up to 10 times 
  •  Up to 20 times 
   •  30 times or more

18. Which of the following is the most common cause of nightmares? 

•  Eating before going to bed 
 •  Excessive alcohol consumption 
  •  Stress and anxiety 
   •  Illness with a fever
19. Professor Smith is lecturing and notices a student in the back of the room who appears 
to be daydreaming. Professor Smith startles the student by asking, “Excuse me. Can I help 
you?” Given what we know about daydreaming, the student is most likely to be daydreaming 

•  a sexual fantasy. 
 •  lying on the beach soaking up the sun. 
  •  “I was just thinking about a paper I have to write in another course.” 
   •  “I was just thinking what I would do if a won the Mega Lotto tonight."

20. ________ refers to awareness that differs from normal consciousness.

•  Altered states 
 •  Controlled processes 
  •  Automatic processes  
   •  Cognitive unconscious

21. Gerald has difficulty falling off to sleep. Harley can fall off to asleep easily but often wakes 
up early. Dale typically sleeps for 10 hours. All three are tired and not rested upon rising. Who 
seems to be experiencing insomnia?

•  Gerald 
 •  Harley 
  •  Dale 
   •  All three suffer from insomnia.

22. What is the literal meaning of circadian?

•  “about a day”  
 •  “the mind’s day” 
  •  “the mind’s clock” 
   •  “time has no end”  

23. Very young infants who suffer from sleep apnea may be more at risk for SIDS, or sudden 
infant death syndrome. Why might these infants have difficulty breathing? 

•  Many of these infants are obese and therefore their airways are obstructed. 
 •  The brain stem is not yet fully developed. 
  •  The tissue lining the nasal passageway may be obstructing their airflow. 
   •  No medical explanation has been determined.
24. REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because

•  the body does not need REM sleep, but does need regular sleep. 
 •  although asleep, the brain waves are identical to those recorded awake. 
  •  dreams often make no sense to the individual once they are awake. 
   •  REM sleep occurs immediately following Stage 1 sleep and immediately before 
      Stage 2 sleep.
25. REM rebound is caused by

•  narcolepsy. 
 •  sleep deprivation. 
  •  REM deprivation. 
   •  delta wave synchrony.
26. Bill suddenly and without warning slips into REM sleep during the day. He often falls 
to the ground and is difficult to awaken. Bill may have a condition called
•  sleep apnea. 
 •  insomnia. 
  •  narcolepsy. 
   •  epilepsy.

27. Irresistible attacks of sleepiness & muscle paralysis are symptoms of a sleep disorder called 

•  insomnia. 
 •  narcolepsy. 
  •  sleep apnea. 
   •  night terrors.
28. Freud’s interpretation of dreams was based on the assumption that

•  the content of dreams had to be considered symbolic. 
 •  dream content reflected what worried us in our waking state. 
  •  dream content was a continuation of the events in our daily lives. 
   •  dreams were similar to the hallucinations experienced by schizophrenics.
29. The _________ theory suggests that sleep evolved because it prevented energy 
waste and minimized exposure to dangers. 

•  repair 
 •  adaptive 
  •  Freudian 
   •  activation-synthesis

30. Calvin had a dream about his dog Snoopy in which he constantly looked for him but 
couldn't find him. In reality, Calvin's dog died after being hit by a car. According to Sigmund 
Freud, his dream in which he is searching for his dog is an example of ____________, 
while the inner meaning that he misses his dog terribly is an example of ______________. 

•  wish fulfillment; manifest content 
 •  latent content; wish fulfillment 
  •  latent content; manifest content 
   •  manifest content; latent content

31. What tends to happen to people as they age with regard to circadian preference? 

•  People tend to become more like evening persons after reaching 50. 
 •  People tend to become more like morning persons after reaching 50. 
  •  People tend to become more like afternoon persons after reaching 50. 
   •  People's tendency for circadian preference remains unchanged until the late 70’s.
32. After experiencing months of poor sleep, Ray is evaluated in a sleep laboratory. After his 
evaluation his doctor tells him that he is suffering from sleep apnea. This means that Ray has 

•  insomnia caused by anxiety. 
 •  a condition in which he stops breathing while he sleeps. 
  •  insomnia caused by the excessive use of sedatives during the day. 
   •  a disorder in which he falls asleep uncontrollably during the day but not at night.

33. When Tawny is asked to write down her dreams as a class assignment, she is 
bothered by the fact that her dreams often seem to jump randomly from scene to scene with 
little meaning. What theory best explains her dreams? 

•  activation-synthesis 
 •  dreams-for-survival 
  •  sociocultural theory 
   •  Freudian
34. Anthony's therapist is using hypnosis to help him recall the night he was supposedly 
abducted by aliens. Danny's therapist is using hypnosis to prepare for the pain of dental surgery 
since Danny is allergic to the dentist's pain killers. Patrick's therapist is using hypnosis to help 
him quit drinking and smoking. Which client has the highest chance of success?

•  Anthony 
 •  Danny 
  •  Patrick 
   •  All three can benefit from hypnosis since each technique is proven effective.

35. Hypnosis tends to be more effective in addressing problems related to _________, 
but less effective in problems related to __________.

•  mind-body interactions; self-control 
 •  self-control; mind-body interactions 
  •  self-control; impulse control 
   •  mind-body interactions; psychosomatic symptoms
36. What do hypnosis & LSD have in common? 

•  Both of them can have therapeutic benefits such as losing weight. 
 •  They were both discovered by accident by Sigmund Freud. 
  •  At one time, they were both illegal - now just LSD is. 
   •  Both have the ability to alter one’s consciousness. 

37. Bobby agree to be hypnotized during a comedy routine. While hypnotized he 
stood on his chair and crowed like a rooster. Later, when is friends asked why he did this, 
Bobby replied that he didn't know, it must have been because he was hypnotized. What 
theory best explains his behavior?

•  the hidden observer theory of hypnosis 
 •  the social-cognitive explanation of hypnosis 
  •  the biological theory of hypnosis 
   •  the behavioral theory of hypnosis
38. Once the individual has developed a behavioral pattern of drug abuse & an overwhelming 
desire to get and use the drug, then we say that the individual has developed a(n) 

•  tolerance. 
 •  addiction. 
  •  withdrawal symptom. 
   •  psychological dependence.
39. Jackie has found that when she tries to quit drinking, she gets headaches, has night 
sweats, and shakes uncontrollably. Such a reaction is an example of 

•  psychological dependence. 
 •  overdose. 
  •  withdrawal. 
   •  learned behavior.
40. A long-term effect of marijuana use is

•  asthma. 
 •  lung cancer. 
  •  immune system damage. 
   •  all of these.

41. What is the most commonly used and abused depressant? 

•  alcohol 
 •  Prozac 
  •  tranquilizers 
   •  caffeine
42. Rose claims that cocaine is the most dangerous drug in terms of the number of deaths 
caused each year. Her belief is 

•  correct. 
 •  incorrect; heroin causes far more deaths. 
  •  incorrect; alcohol causes far more deaths. 
   •  incorrect; nicotine causes far more deaths.

43. Which drug, depending on the dosage, can be a hallucinogen, stimulant, depressant, or painkiller?

• marijuana
 •  opium
  •  PCP 
   • caffeine

44. Which of the following is not a mechanism by which drugs change behavior?

•  blocking reuptake 
 •  mimicking the action of neurotransmitters 
  •  decreasing the production of synaptic vesicles 
   •  activating the brain’s reward/pleasure circuit

                              Robert C. Gates