Practice test for Learning. 

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions & are selected 
to represent the type of question you should expect on exams. Exam questions, 
however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in 
your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of 
lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. 

1. Sheila almost got hit by a car at the street corner because she was too busy texting 
on her phone. From that day on, Sheila looks before she reaches the street corner. Her 
change in behavior is the result of 

•  learning. 
 •  memory. 
  •  motivation. 
   •  both sensation and perception.

2. A relatively enduring change in behavior that results from previous experience with 
certain stimuli & responses is the definition of

•  learning. 
 •  extinction.  
  •  imprinting. 
   •  generalization.  

3. At home, you rattle the chain on your dog's leash every time you prepare to take him 
for a walk. After several episodes like this, you find that your dog comes running to the front door 
even when you pick up the leash to put it back in the closet. In this example, what is the 
conditioned stimulus?

•  going for a walk 
 •  the sound of the leash 
  •  the front door 
   •  the dog runs to the door

4. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in placing the emphasis on
•  waiting until the subject accidentally performs the right behavior. 
 •  pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned response. 
  •  allowing subjects to watch others perform some behavior. 
   •  consequences that follow some behavior.

5. A child has been classically conditioned to fear a white rat. If the child does not show 
fear when shown a black rat, this is called 

•  stimulus generalization. 
 •  stimulus discrimination. 
  •  spontaneous recovery. 
   •  extinction.
6.  Unconditioned is to conditioned as _______ is to ________. 

•  learned; reflex 
 •  reflex; learned 
  •  food; salivation 
   •  response; stimulus
7. During the cold winter, you have stopped taking your dog for walks. What's more, your dog 
has gotten used to the fact that when you accidentally rattle his leash, he isn't going for a walk, 
and subsequently he doesn't come running to the front door. What has occurred?

•  stimulus generalization 
 •  stimulus discrimination 
  •  spontaneous recovery 
   •  extinction
8. Robert is trying to remember the procedure used to establish classical conditioning. He would 
be best to remember 

•  CS, CR. 
 •  CS, UCS, UCR. 
  •  neutral stimulus, UCS, UCR. 
   •  CR, UCS, neutral stimulus.

9. Ronda had tartar sauce with her fish one night. The next morning she was nauseated and 
sick for much of the day. The next time she was offered the chance to go out for fish she felt 
queasy and declined. Her queasiness at the thought of fish with tartar sauce was probably 
due to

•  higher-order conditioning. 
 •  a conditioned taste aversion. 
  •  stimulus substitution. 
   •  stimulus generalization.

10. In classical conditioning, generalization is adaptive because 

•  dangerous UCS no longer trigger the UCR. 
 •  we learn that some behaviors lead to reinforcement. 
  •  the CR is capable of returning following a period of extinction. 
   •  we are able to respond to a stimulus that resembles the original CS.

11. Caitlin works in the psychology department's rat lab. In her studies, she found that 
many of her lab rats would develop a conditioned taste aversion to certain foods after as 
little as one trail. Caitlin's psychology professor refers to this as a classic example of

•  biological preparedness. 
 •  psychological preparedness. 
  •  instinctive drift. 
   •  stimulus substitution.

12. Stimulus Discrimination is to narrow as Stimulus Generalization is to ________. 

•  broad 
 •  restrict 
  •  learned 
   •  reappearance

13. Blake finds that if he washes his car prior to going out on the town, more of his friends 
want to ride along with him. What theory would best explain his willingness to always wash 
and clean his car before going out? 

•  Thorndike's law of effect 
 •  Skinner's theory of operant conditioning 
  •  Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning. 
   •  Kohler's insight learning theory

14. Law of effect is to ______ as operant conditioning is to _______. 

•  Skinner; Rescorla 
 •  Tolman; Bandura 
  •  Thorndike; Skinner 
   •  Skinner; Thorndike

16. Reinforcement is to ___________, as punishment is to ___________. 

•  decrease; increase 
 •  decrease; decrease 
  •  increase; decrease 
   •  operant conditioning; classical conditioning

17. Where do secondary reinforces get their power from? 

•  Pavlov's classical conditioning 
 •  Thorndike's law of effect 
  •  Bandura's observational theory 
   •  Kohler's insight theory
18. Reinforcers, whether they be positive or negative, have the same effect on behavior, 
which is to

•  decrease the probability that the behavior will be repeated. 
 •  increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated. 
  •  increase the probability that the behavior will be extinguished. 
   •  decrease the probability that the behavior will be spontaneously recovered.

19. Positive reinforcement results in a(an) __________ in the target behavior and negative 
reinforcement result in an __________ in the target behavior. 

•  an increase; a decrease 
 •  an increase; an increase 
  •  a decrease, a decrease 
   •  a decrease; an increase

20. Kurt & Kyle are out walking. Kurt says, “Hey, I’ve got a pebble in my shoe,” and proceeds 
to take off his shoe and to remove the pebble. “That feels better,” says Kurt. Kyle believes that 
Kurts’ behavior of removing the pebble is a ____________ because it increases the chance 
that Kurt will repeat the behavior if another pebble gets in his shoe. 

•  positive punisher 
 •  positive reinforcer 
  •  negative reinforcer 
   •  unconditioned stimulus

21.  Belinda has a terrible headache. If she takes some aspirin so as to make her headache 
go away, this would be an example of

•  positive reinforcement. 
 •  negative reinforcement. 
  •  punishment. 
   •  generalization.

22. What refers to removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response that decreases the odds 
that the response will recur? 

•  Punishment  
 •  Latent punishment  
  •  Positive punishment  
   •  Negative punishment 
23. Ben gets paid every 2 weeks. In one 2 week period he works a total of 20 hours. 
During another 2 week period he works a total of 50 hours. Regardless of the total 
number of hours he works each week, he is paid every 2 weeks. What schedule of 
reinforcement is being used? 

•  fixed ratio 
 •  variable ratio 
  •  fixed interval 
   •  variable interval

24. When is continuous reinforcement most appropriate? 

•  only after the conditioning has taken place 
 •  when the behavior is an involuntary reflex 
  •  when the behavior is a voluntary response 
   •  in the initial stages of operant conditioning
25. Denise is grounded for coming home after curfew. Additionally her parents have taken 
away her cell phone for a month. Losing her cell phone privileges is an example of 

•  negative reinforcement. 
 •  punishment by application. 
  •  punishment by removal. 
   •  learned helplessness.
26. After a period of extinction, a temporary recovery in rate of responding is called 

•  extinction. 
 •  generalization. 
  •  discrimination. 
   •  spontaneous performance. 

27. What is the relationship between negative reinforcement and punishment? 

•  Both tend to strengthen a response 
 •  Both tend to weaken a response 
  •  Negative reinforcement strengthens a response while punishment weakens a 
   •  Negative reinforcement weakens a response while punishment strengthens a 

28. Which of the following theorists argued that learning can take place when someone is 
watching another person and performs that behavior even when not reinforced? 

•  B. F. Skinner 
 •  Albert Bandura 
  •  Edward Tolman 
   •  Wolfgang Koehler

29. Studies by Keller and Marian Breland found that many animals exhibit instinctive drift. 
What does this mean?

•  The animals studied could not learn any skills even with the use of reinforcement. 
 •  The animals studied would learn skills through reinforcement but eventually 
     revert back to their genetically controlled pattern of behavior. 
  •  The animals studied would learn skills through reinforcement and they remained 
      that way no matter how much reinforcement they were given. 
   •  The animals studied could only learn skills similar to those found in the wild.
30. An important conclusion from the Bandura Bobo doll study is that 

•  we create cognitive maps of dolls. 
 •  behavior can be modified by simply watching a live model. 
  •  behavior can be modified throughout negative punishment. 
   •  behavior can be modified by providing secondary reinforcers. 

31. Jose was lying in bed when he suddenly realized how he might deal with a fast approaching 
deadline at work. When his coworker asked how he came up with his idea, he said, "It just came 
to be out of nowhere." Psychologists would refer to this as

•  latent learning 
 •  learned helplessness 
  •  insight learning 
   •  observational learning

32. I know and understand this material,” says Rick. His instructor would agree with him. But 
when it comes time to prove his understanding on the exam, he typically doesn’t do well. This 
exemplifies the idea of 

•  shaping. 
 •  insight learning. 
  •  a lack of preparedness. 
   •  the learning-performance distinction.

33. Jody failed repeatedly in college algebra. Finally, she gave up and was seriously considering 
dropping out of college. One day, her best friend offered to personally help her if she signed up for 
college algebra again, but she refused. What concept might explain her reluctance? 

•  latent learning 
 •  learned helplessness 
  •  insight learning 
   •  observational learning
34. The four processes necessary for observational learning are attention, memory, imitation, 
and ___________. 

•  motivation / desire 
 •  generalization 
  •  reinforcement 
   •  discrimination 

35. What does AMID stand for?
•  Attention, Memory, Intention, Detention 
 •  Attention, Memory, Intention, Desire 
  •  Ask, Memory, Imitate, Develop 
   •  Attention, Memory, Intention, Desires
36.  “Ah ha!” is to ______ as reinforcement is to _______. 

•  preparedness; cognitive theory 
 •  imprinting; classical conditioning 
  •  insight learning; operant conditioning 
   •  spontaneous recovery; insight learning 

37. Darla has noticed how some of her friends have lost weight and gotten trim by 
exercising 1-2 hours each day. However, she has no plans to imitate their behavior. 
What component of Bandura's model of observational learning will explain why Darla 
has not started a similar weight loss program? 

•  Darla's unconscious does not believe she can achieve the goal. 
 •  Darla is not motivated nor does she have the desire to begin the program. 
  •  Darla's self-esteem must first be addressed. 
   •  Darla's unwillingnes may be a sign of mental disorder.
38.  A newsletter article has the headline, “Scientists find innate tendency that helps 
learning.” You realize that the “innate tendency” refers to

•  behavioral factors. 
 •  biological factors.
  •  cognitive factors. 
   •  environmental stimuli. 
39. Spanking is an example of 

•  negative reinforcement.
 •  negative punishment.
  •  positive punishment.
   •  time-out.
40. With operant conditioning ___________ are important in forming an association, whereas 
with classical conditioning __________ are important in forming an association. 

•  consequences; antecedent stimuli 
 •  reflexes; rewards 
  •  conditional stimuli; reflexive stimuli 
   •  positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement

                              Robert C. Gates