Self test #15 - Adolescence: Cognitive Development

1. Piaget characterizes adolescent reasoning as

 metacognition.
 the game of thinking.
 formal operational thought.
 concrete operational thought

2. Which of the following is typical of formal operational thought?

 what is possible
 what is hypothetical
 what is contradictory
 all of these

3. Hypothetical thought is not

 tied to the real world.
 about imagined possibilities.
 part of formal operational thinking.
 reasoning about propositions that may or may not reflect reality.

4. A problem with adolescent reasoning is that it can

 become too reality bound.
 interfere with deductive reasoning.
 lead to agonizing reflection & self doubt.
 make it difficult too understand theoretical thought.

5. When using inductive thinking a person might think, "if it barks like
a dog, and wags its tail like a dog, it must be a"

 mammal.
 dogfish.
 animal.
 dog

6. Trial & error problem solving is characteristic of

 realistic thought.
 hypothetical thought.
 formal operational thought.
 concrete operational thought.

7. Adolescent egocentrism is evident when an adolescent believes

 they personally are more socially significant than they really are.
 they receive adequate attention from their family & friends.
 their generation is similar to previous generations.
 their own ethnic group is better than others.

8. The personal fable refers to an adolescent's imagining that he or she is

 playing a role rather than live a real life.
 destined to life a heroic life.
 always the center of attention.
 much smarter & wiser that his or her parents.

9. All of the following are parts of adolescent egocentrism EXCEPT the

 invincibility fable.
 imaginary audience.
 game of thinking.
 personal fable.

10. The optimum person-environment fit is based on

 the individual's strengths & learning style.
 the individual's developmental stage.
 society's traditions & future needs.
 all of these

11. The term "imaginary audience" refers to an adolescent's

 fantasy that everyone is constantly attending to their behavior & appearance.
 belief that others are constantly spying on them.
 constant posing & posturing.
 ability to understand how others perceive them.

12. Adolescents typically

 pay no attention to criticism from others.
 care about criticism from peers, not adults.
 are very sensitive to criticism.
 do not criticize others.

13. A volatile mismatch occurs between

 teen couples.
 stepparents & stepchildren.
 teens & most high schools.
 athletes & non athletes.

14. Compared to elementary teachers, students believe most secondary
teachers are more

 helpful.
 friendly.
 demanding.
 caring.

15. With competitive learning

 students are ranked against each other on individual performance.
 students are separated into groups based on ability.
 students are encouraged to work together.
 the goal is to understand the material.

16. Researchers find that group learning

 encourages independence.
 stresses competition.
 fosters excitement about learning.
 all of these

17. The main determinant to college enrollment by an adolescent is

 family background.
 individual potential.
 the ability to use formal operational thought.
 the ability to use deductive thinking.

18. Adolescents usually find employment

 which matters to them.
 for which they are prepared.
 through a methodical research of possibilities.
 through their friends and family.

19. A big problem with sexual commitment in adolescence is

 emotional stress.
 increased risk of STDs.
 unwanted pregnancy.
 early marriage.

20. Teenagers may become pregnant because, they

 want to do the opposite of what their parents say.
 believe that the risks do not apply to them.
 do not know about birth control.
 really do want to have children.

21. Adolescents need protection from poor judgments because:

 their choices are long-lasting.
 the consequences of their choices are more serious.
 they have difficulty weighing risk against opportunity.
 all of these

22. To keep a realistic perspective on adolescent behavior, it is 
good to know that more than ___ of all teenagers reach 
age 20 alive & in good health.

 85%
 90%
 95%
 99%

23. The ability to analyze & the ability to reach conclusions that 
are intuitive lead adolescents toward:

 less flexibility.
 static reasoning.
 cognitive economy.
 using analytical thinking in their social life.

24. Part of the reason adolescents won't use hypothetical-deductive 
reasoning although they can is because:

 they are not egocentric enough.
 their brain has no conscious/unconscious pathway.
 their brain has no factual/creative pathway.
 they have two parallel, interacting modes of information processing.

25. Unlike individuals who possess formal operational thought, those 
who have only concrete operational thought would have trouble arguing;

 when they have tangible proof.
 a point of view based on a false premise.
 with their parents or other authority figures
 all of these!

26. At what age in humans is a "self-serving bias" present?

 childhood
 adulthood
 adolescence
 all of these!

27. Intuitive thinking;

 is rarely correct.
 is inefficient when used for personal issues.
 can become analytic & logical with guidance.
 can replace analytic & logical thinking in some cases.

28. Which of the following is necessary for cognitive development?

 independent learning
 peer approval
 high grades
 personal involvement

29. School sex education programs help teens;

 help find appropriate partners.
 understand what it means to be sexually active.
 gain experience with concrete operational thinking.
 practice with the emotional expression that reflects their intuitive thinking. 

30. Thinking that extrapolates from a specific experience to form a general premise is called

  inductive reasoning. 
   deductive reasoning. 
    intuitive thinking. 
    hypothetical reasoning.
                        --------------------------------------
                              Robert C. Gates