Practice test 1. - Introduction 

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Chapter 1 & are selected 
to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam one. You can, in fact, expect 
to see a few of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal 
with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are 
responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, 
& material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. 

1. Which could be called the ecological context of development? 
  genetic programming 
   physical surroundings 
    personal choices 
     physical maturation 

2. What are the connections between various microsystems called? 

3. The primary focus for developmental scientists is 
 - how research changes from decade to decade and century to century. 
  - continuity & change in individuals from one day, year, or generation to the next. 
   - the ways that experiences of childhood determine later personality. 
    - the interaction of biology, psychology, and sociology. 

4. Many assumptions about the proper role of people of different ages, sexes, or 
ethnicity, such as that the husband should be the major wage earner, are: 

 social constructions. 
  genetically based. 
   cultural artifacts. 
    universally accepted. 

5. As of 1998, what age group has the greatest percentage of people living in poverty? 

 people under the age of 10 
  people in their 40s 
   people in their 60s 
    people 80 and older 

6. Naturalistic observation permits 

 the determination of cause-and-effect. 
 the study of subjects in their usual settings. 
 the manipulation of variables. 
 control of the environment. 

7. When a research finding has a .001 level of significance the result would occur 
by chance less than once in 

 one thousand times. 
 one hundred times. 
 ten times 
 1/1000 times. 

8. In an experiment the dependant variable is 

 the person or persons receiving the treatment. 
 any unmeasured factor that can affect the result. 
 what is being manipulated. 
 the variable being studied. 

9. In a case study you always want to 

 insure a "blind" study. 
 insure a large sample size. 
 do an intensive study of one person. 
 insure a representative sample. 

10. Unlike other research types, cross-sequential design allows researchers to 

 reduce sample bias. 
 eliminate cohort deference. 
 look for gender differences. 
 combine longitudinal & cross-sectional research. 

11. A hypothesis is best defined as: 

 a theory. 
 a conclusion. 
 research evidence. 
 a specific prediction that can be tested. 

12. An understanding of dynamic systems leads to the next understanding that a small 
gesture, or a single spoken word, may have a profound effect on a child. 
This insight regarding change is called: 

 interacting systems. 
 the butterfly effect. 
 the power of continuity. 
 ecological understanding. 

13. The socioeconomic status (SES) of a family is: 

 determined by the income & occupation of the head of the household. 
 determined by education and neighborhood. 
 also related to past history & future prospects. 
 all of the above. 

14. Ethics in conducting and reporting research implies: 

 the use of "informed consent." 
 being mindful of the social, political, & human implications of the study. 
 do no harm. 
 all of the above. 

15. The type of research that studies changes over time includes all the following 
basic designs except: 


16. The study & understanding of temperament belongs in the 

 physical domain 
 biosocial domain 
 cognitive domain 
 psychosocial domain 

17. People that share the same time in history & similar attitudes are demonstrating 

 their SES. 
 the cohort effect. 
 a social construct. 
 the ecological perspective. 

18. Which of the following would be of MOST interest to a psychologist 
studying behavior from the biological perspective? 

 Computer modeling of mental processes. 
 Unconscious influences on behavior. 
 Hormonal influences on behavior. 
 Cognitive influences on behavior. 

19. Essentially, a cognitive psychologist is interested in the origins 
& consequences of _______ 

 genetic dispositions. 
 unconscious behavior. 

20. The usefulness of case studies is limited because they often _______ 

 - require extensive training to comprehend. 
 - describe the causes of behavior, but not the forms of behavior. 
 - describe the behavior of large populations of individuals who exhibit some 
   psychological problem. 
 - describe the behavior of individuals who may not be representative of the rest 
   of the population being studied. 

21. Which of the following perspectives uses theories that are least likely 
to be testable? 

 the learning perspective. 
 the cognitive perspective. 
 the biological perspective. 
 the psychodynamic perspective. 

22. Developmentalists who carefully observe the behavior of schoolchildren 
during recess are using a research method known as

 the case study.
 cross-sectional research.
 scientific observation.
 cross-sequential research.

23. Developmental psychologists explore three areas of development. They are:

 physical, cognitive, & psychosocial.
 biosocial, cognitive, & emotional.
 biosocial, cognitive, & psychosocial.
 physical, biosocial, & cognitive. 

24. Which of the following would most likely be investigated by use of a case study?

 - the effects of caffeine on memory
 - the extent of marijuana usage in the general population
 - a rare psychological problem such as multiple personality
 - the correlation between hours sleep per night and the grade point averages 
   of college students

25. The survey method involves

 Careful questioning of a representative sample of people.
 An overview of the attitudes and backgrounds of selected groups.
 An in-depth study of the opinions and attitudes of a selected individual.
 Direct observation and recording of a representative sample of behavior.

26. One of the advantages of the experimental method is that

a Clearer cause-and-effect relationships can be identified.
b It allows the investigation of rare or unusual problems or events.
c It allows information about large numbers of people to be gathered.
d All of the above

27. In an experiment to find out if taking LSD increases IQ scores, the IQ 
scores would be

 A control variable.
 An extraneous variable.
 The dependent variable.
 The independent variable.

28. To be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship exists, it is necessary to

 Develop a positive correlation.
 Test for a negative correlation.
 Perform a controlled experiment.
 Engage in naturalistic observation

29. Students who do better in high school tend to do better in college. 
This is an example of a

 Zero correlation.
 Perfect correlation.
 Positive correlation.
 Negative correlation.

30. In observational research there are no

 statistical tests
 standardized tests
 operational definitions
 experimental manipulations

31. The research method in which subjects of different ages are studied simultaneously & 
at one point in time to examine the effects of age on some aspect of behavior 
is known as

cross-age design.
cross-sectional design.
cross-cultural research.
cross-sequential design.

32. Which of the following ideas is central to the ecological perspective?

 Development occurs in context.
 Humans are biologically predisposed to seek reinforcers.
 Social behaviors are, in large part, determined by the processes of natural selection.
 In order to understand human behavior, we need to consider both immediate & evolutionary causes.  

33. What rights are accorded children who participate in psychological experiments?

 - Children have the right to discontinue participation at any time.
 - Children have the right to refuse to participate in the experiment.
 - Children have the right to be told as much about the experimental procedures as is feasible & in 
   terms they can understand.
 - All of the above.

34. In an experiment the comparison group is also known as the

 experimental group.
 results group.
 dependant group.
 control group.

35. Which of the following can be said of a case study?

- A case study is used to understand a particular individual very well.
- A case study can be used to provide a provocative starting point for other research.
- When doing a case study no confident conclusions about people in general can be drawn.
- The collection & interpretations of case-study findings reflect the biases as well as the 
   wisdom of the researcher.
- All of the above.

36. Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to its nonlinear 

37. Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to the idea that 
different academic disciplines contribute data & insight to the science of development?

38. Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to the idea that 
people change?

39. Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to the idea 
that development reflects a multitude of values, traditions, & tools for living?

40. Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to the idea that 
development takes place in a number of historical, cultural, & socioeconomic settings?


41. Which of the following perspectives recognizes a "reciprocal connection" between the study 
of childhood & the study of adulthood?

 the life-span perspective
 the scientific perspective
 the socioeconomic perspective
 the cultural-historical perspective

42. Which of the following terms defines an idea that is build more on shared perceptions than on 
objective reality?

 social convoy
 social construct
 the butterfly effect
 socioeconomic status (SES)

43. Which of the following is a theorem of chaos theory, & states that small variations in the initial 
conditions of a dynamical system can produce large variations in the results?

 cohort effect
 butterfly effect
 replication effect
 dynamic systems effect

44. A strong correlation between variables X & Y implies:

 high scores on the X are associated with high scores on the Y.
 low scores on the X are associated with low scores on the Y.
 X is not a good predictor of Y.
 X is a good predictor of Y.

45. The correlation between two variables that are totally unrelated would be:


46. Another name for a hypothesis is

 a question.
 an observation.
 an educated guess.

47. Which question cannot be answered by an experiment?

 Is rabies caused by a virus?
 Can radiation cause cancer?
 Did a comet impact kill the dinosaurs?
 Does penicillin kill Salmonella bacteria?

48. What is the over-riding principle governing ethical research behavior?

 To avoid dealing with sensitive topics.
 To preserve the anonymity of your participants.
 To obtain the informed consent of the participants.
 To protect research participants & their communities from harm.

49. Which of the following is not an ethical practice:

 Keeping your data under lock & key.
  Using pseudonyms to protect participants from being identified.
   Sharing  data with other organizations who have a legitimate interest in your research.
    Obtaining someone's informed consent to participate in your research project prior to the project starting.

50. Which of the following is not a major context within multicontextual development?

51.  An advantage of qualitative research methods over quantitative research methods is that

 numbers can be easily summarized, compared, & charted. 
 qualitative research reflects cultural & contextual complexity. 
   qualitative research is easier to replicate than quantitative research. 
   qualitative research is less vulnerable to bias than quantitative research.

                            Topics in Psychology
                               Robert C. Gates