Practice test #25 - Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development

1. Self theories emphasize

 sexual or racial discrimination.
 circumscribed opportunities.
 human intentionality.
 social forces.

2. Erikson called the final crisis of development

 integrity versus despair.
 generatively versus stagnation.
 activity versus disengagement.
 optimization versus compensation.

3. Re: Whitbourne, the process of maintaining identity involves

 growth & change.
 identity & role confusion.
 optimization & compensation.
 assimilation & accommodation.

4. Selective optimization with compensation

- is a part of psychoanalytic theory.
- was first emphasized by Freud & Erikson.
- states that people in late adulthood set their own goals
  & access their own abilities.
- states that in late adulthood, people must continue to do everything
  they have always done.

5. In recent years self theories have received confirmation from

 behavioral genetics.
 critical race theory.
 feminist theory.
 volunteer studies.

6. When opportunities are based on age, it is

 self actualization.
 age stratification.
 social stagnation.
 selective optimization.

7. The antithesis of disengagement theory is

 identity theory.
 activity theory.
 epigenetic theory.
 feminist theory.

8. Critical race theory sees race as

 no longer a barrier to success.
 a problem that disappears with age.
 a social construct.
 purely physiological.

9. According to continuity theory, the big 5 personality traits

 change in middle & late adulthood.
 are maintained throughout old age.
 suddenly change after age 60.
 follow no predictable pattern.

10. Self theories echo

 social stratification theories.
 psychoanalytic theories.
 epigenetic systems theories.
 critical race theories.

11. Most retirees stop working because of

 heart disease or senility.
 age discrimination.
 personal choice.
 job loss due to layoffs.

12. Most frail elderly americans hope to

 keep on living independently.
 extend life as long as possible.
 live with their children.
 live in a nursing home.

13. The term "social convoy" refers to the truism that

a he who travels fastest travels alone.
b we travel through life in the company of others.
c it is not healthy to spend time alone.
d we need a strong leader in times of war.

14. Who would most likely be healthiest & happiest at 70?

 Ruth, who never married & lives alone.
 Emma, who lives with her husband.
 Ed, who is a widower, not remarried.
 Kim, who is divorced, and lives with her grandchildren.

15. Today, most never married adults are

 in need of supervision.
 pitied or ridiculed.
 happy & active.
 immature or selfish.

16. Divorce in late adulthood

 usually occurs before the 50th anniversary.
 the longer a person is divorced, the less happy she or he is.
 creates loss of identity as great as that caused by the death of a spouse.
 is more common when couples have no children.

17. During late adulthood, it is likely that

 unmarried women have only female friends.
 unmarried men have only male friends.
 men have more friends than women.
 women having only relatives as closest friends.

18. The relationship between siblings is

 closest in early childhood.
 more distant in adolescence.
 increasingly distant after middle adulthood.
 closer emotionally in late adulthood.

19. Which of the following is an IADL (Instrumental Activity of Daily Life)?


20. Most elder abuse is done by

 social workers.
 family members.
 health care providers.
 nursing home workers 

                               Robert C. Gates