Self Test 2. - Theories of Development

1. A child who must modify an old idea in order to incorporate a new experience 
is using the process of 

  • assimilation 
   • accommodation 
    • cognitive equilibrium 
     • guided participation 

2. According to Freud, who is most likely to be in the genital stage? 

  • 16 year-old boy 
   • 7-year-old girl 
    • 1-year-old boy 
     • 6-month-old girl 

3. According to Erikson, a 2 year old experiences 

  • industry versus inferiority 
   • independence versus dependence 
    • autonomy versus shame & doubt 
     • identity versus role confusion 

4. In operant conditioning an organism learns that 

 studying for an exam usually results in a passing grade. 
  a particular behavior usually produces a particular consequence. 
   classically conditioned responses are learned for life. 
    reinforcement always follows a response. 

5. Social learning theory emphasizes learning through 

  understanding how your behavior affects others. 
   observation & imitation. 
    cooperation with others. 

6. Cognitive equilibrium (Piaget) is 

 a state of mental balance. 
  behaving ethically. 
   learning to walk without falling. 
    seeing life from your own & other's perspective. 

7. The central dispute in the study of human development is 

 whether early childhood is really a critical time in human development. 
  whether people develop in basically the same way. 
   whether to use observational or experimental research. 
    the nature - nurture controversy. 

8. Parents that spend a lot of time structuring their child's environment
   are emphasizing the importance of 

   operant conditioning. 
    the zone of proximal development. 

9. Classical conditioning is to _________ as operant conditioning is to _________. 

 Skinner; Pavlov 
  Watson; Vygotsky 
   Pavlov; Skinner 
    Vygotsky; Watson 

10. One who takes an eclectic approach 

 does not use any of the theories of development. 
  emphasizes ecosystems. 
   uses parts of several theories to explain behavior. 
   feels social learning contributes the most to current behavior. 
11. How do minitheories differ from grand theories of development? 
 - Unlike the more comprehensive grand theories, minitheories explain only part of development. 
  - Unlike grand theories, which usually reflect the thinking of many researchers, 
     minitheories tend to stem from one person. 
   - Only the recency of the research on which they are based keeps minitheories from having 
      the sweeping influence of grand theories. 
    - They differ in all the above ways. 

12. Psychoanalytic theory views intrinsic drives & motives as the foundation for 

 sexual expression. 
  human attachments. 
   developmental tasks. 
    all of the above. 

13. Vygotsky's theory has been criticized for 

 failing to recognize how much children can learn when encouraged. 
  neglecting the biological processes. 
   overlooking how people learn from each other. 
    ignoring the dynamic interaction that occurs between people. 

14. We are more likely to imitate the behavior of others if we particularly admire & identify with them. 
This belief is expressed in 

 stage theory. 
  socialcultural theory. 
   Palvov’s experiments. 
    social learning theory. 

15. According to Piaget, an infant 1st comes to know the world through: 

 sucking & grasping. 
  naming & counting. 
   preoperational thought. 
   instruction from parents. 

16. Of the following terms, which one does not describe a stage of Freud’s theory of 
childhood sexuality? 


17. Behaviorists have found that they can often solve a person’s psychological 
problems by: 

 analyzing the client. 
  altering the environment. 
   administering well designed punishments. 
    admitting the existence of the unconscious. 

18. When an individual’s existing understanding no longer fits his or her present 
experiences, the result is called 

   a psychological crisis. 
    negative reinforcement. 

19. The zone of proximal development refers to: 

 the influence of a pleasurable stimulus on behavior. 
  the tendency of a child to model an admired adults behavior. 
   a stage during which a child exhibits preoperational thinking. 
    the range of skills a child can do with assistance but cannot do independently. 

20. Which developmental theory suggests that each person is born with genetic 
possibilities that must be nurtured in order to growth? 

 • socialcultural 
  •  behaviorism 
   •  epigenetic 
    •   cognitive 

21.  Freud is to oral as Erikson is to _________________. 

 •  Trust versus Mistrust. 
  •  Autonomy versus Shame & Doubt. 
   •  Initiative versus Guilt. 
    •  Industry versus Inferiority. 

                            Topics in Psychology
                               Robert C. Gates