Hypnosis / Drugs		

Hypnosis: a state that resembles sleep. Induced by suggestion.

  •  Not everyone can be hypnotized.
  •  Those who score high on the Standford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale are susceptible.
  •  Someone is hypnotized by hypnotic induction.

Theories of hypnosis

    The first physiological theory was Mesmer´s theory of animal magnetism, which maintained that 
an invisible magnetic fluid resided in the therapist's body, & was responsible for curing the afflicted 
parts of a patient's body by means of hand-passes. You can be "Mesmerized"

    Altered state theory of hypnosis (Milton Erickson) - hypnosis puts a person in an altered state of 
consciousness, during which the person is disconnected from reality, which results in being able to 
experience & respond to suggestion.
    Sociocognitive theory of hypnosis - A person "buys in" to the process because of social pressure 
(no hypnotic induction is involved).

Behaviors (of hypnosis)
    - Hypnotic analgesia - absence of the sense of pain after hypnosis
    - Posthypnotic suggestion - The control of the mind of an hypnotic subject by ideas in the mind of the 
    - Posthypnotic amnesia - not remembering
    - Age regression - no evidence for this really happening
    - Imagined perception - 

    The medical & therapeutic applications of hypnosis while useful in reducing the 
perception of pain & the enhancement of the therapeutic setting may be overstated. 

Drug Overview 

    Reasons for use (psychoactive drugs): pleasure, joy, euphoria; meeting social 
expectations, stress reduction, escaping!

Key terms :

    Addiction - means that a person has developed a behavioral pattern of drug abuse that 
is marked by an overwhelming & compulsive desire to obtain & use the drug; even after 
stopping. (memory aid: the addiction of the mind to the drug) 

    Tolerance - The power possessed or acquired by some persons of bearing doses of medicine 
which in ordinary cases would prove injurious or fatal. 

    Dependency - being abnormally tolerant to & dependent on something that is psychologically 
or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs) (memory aid: the dependency 
of the body on the drug) 

    Withdrawal symptoms - The physical or psychological state experienced when substances are 
withdrawn from an addicted person. 

•  The use of drugs both legal & illegal is widespread.
•  Control of illegal drugs is relatively ineffective.

Effects of drugs on nervous system: 
         •  Drugs mimic neurotransmitters 
         •  Drugs block removal of neurotransmitters (reuptake) 

Drugs - Stimulants

Stimulant - An agent which produces a temporary increase of vital activity in the organism, or in 
any of its parts.

Amphetamines: methamphetamine - amphetamine used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; 
used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant (pep pill, speed, upper). Dangerous!

Cocaine - a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken 
for pleasure. Addictive.

Caffeine - a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects; may be added 
to soft drinks, over-the-counter drugs, etc. Addictive.

Nicotine - A physically addictive, acutely toxic alkaloid that is typically obtained from tobacco leaves. It is used 
as an insecticide.

Opiates / Hallucinogens 

    Opiates - Any medicine that contains opium, and has the quality of inducing sleep or repose; a 
narcotic - Opium, morphine, heroin - The treatment for heroin addiction is methadone.

    Hallucinogen - a psychoactive drug that induces hallucinations; apparent sights, sounds or other sensual 
experiences that do not actually exist or do not exist for other people. Produces altered sensory experiences.

LSD - LySergic acid Diethylamide or just acid
Psilocybin - "magic mushrooms"
Mescaline - peyote cactus
Designer drugs (MDMA "ecstasy") - manufactured (synthetic)


- "Gateway Drug" - Depressant

Ethyl alcohol - also known as ethanol, the spirit in wine, is classified as a sedative-hypnotic drug. Addictive!
     A BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) percentage of 0.08 in the U.S. defines being drunk.
     A BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) percentage of 0.5 may cause coma & death.
     Intoxication of alcohol is associated with violence, suicide, child and spouse abuse, respiratory depression, 
stupor, vomiting, predisposing to Mallory-Weiss Syndrome, hypoglycemia, cardiac arrhythmia, seizures.
     Chronic ingestion is associated with liver cirrhosis & withdrawal symptoms (Delirium Tremens).
     Two groups of alcohol drinkers are identifiable based on the pattern of drinking: the problem drinkers and 
the ones with severe alcohol dependence.

Treatment - Miscellaneous notes:

Marijuana - "Gateway Drug"- a soft drug consisting of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for 
euphoric effect. (Cannabis sativa or hashish)

D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Program) This program has proven to be ineffective in the long run. In fact, 
almost all school based programs have proved to be ineffective (Cuijpers, 2003).

Treatment for Drug Abuse;

     Step 1: Admit the problem
     Step 2: Enter a program
     Step 3: Get therapy - Any of these will do!
           Cognitive-behavioral     -     Motivational     -     12 step approach
     Step 4: Remain drug free 
                                                  Topics in Psychology
                                                       Robert C. Gates