How Nice People Get Corrupted

    Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on module 14. The questions 
are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam two. You can, in fact, 
expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal 
with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are 
responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, 
& material on the web site.

---- Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. ----

Which of the following social-psychological principles is NOT illustrated by the conformity literature?

 the inoculation effect
 the power of the situation
 behavior shapes attitudes
 the fundamental attribution error

2. Milgramís experimental series was reenacted in Bridgeport, Connecticut to determine the influence of 

 the emotional distance of the victim. 
 the authority's closeness & legitimacy 
 whether or not the authority was institutionalized. 
 the liberating effects of a disobedient fellow subject. 

3. When Milgramís experimental series was reenacted in Bridgeport, Connecticut, far from the prestige 
& authority of Yale University, the proportion of participants who fully complied with orders to shock the 
learner through reduced, remained remarkably high at __ percent. 

 17 
 48 
 63 
 65 

4. In one variation on his original experiment, Milgram arranged for a confederate ďclerkĒ (posing as a 
fellow participant) to assume command in the experimenterís absence. As a result of this manipulation, 

- 80 percent of the teachers refused to comply fully. 
- the teachers competed with him and with each other for the role of leader. 
- most teachers agreed to comply with the orders of their fellow group member. 
- participants became more positive about their roles in this cohesive group, and some even became 
  enthusiastic. 

5. In order for a person to be more willing to obey authoritative orders that conflict with his or her own 
personal standards, 

 the authority must be perceived as legitimate. 
 the probable victims must be as close as possible. 
 the authority figure must be as distant as possible. 
 All of the above. 

6. When Milgram varied his experiment so that teachers had to physically force the learnerís hand onto 
a shock plate in order to administer punishment, compliance to the experimenterís orders dropped by 
30%. This variation of the experiment was done to determine the influence of 

 the emotional distance of the victim. 
 the authority's the authority's closeness & legitimacy. 
 whether or not the authority was institutionalized. 
 the liberating effects of a disobedient fellow subject. 

7. In a follow-up series of experiments after his initial study, Milgram made the learnerís protests more 
compelling by having him complain of a heart condition, then scream and plead for release, and finally 
refuse to answer. With this added condition, 

 only 35 percent of participants went to 450 volts. 
 learners became more real & personal to the teacher. 
 teachers were more reluctant to deliver initial shocks. 
 most participants still fully obeyed the experimenterís demands. 

8. When Milgram asked people to predict the results of his experiment, the respondents said that they 
thought _____ would _____. 

 other people; disobey by about 400 volts 
 they themselves; disobey by about 135 volts 
 other people; would go all the way to 450 volts 
 they themselves; never begin to administer shock 

9. When Milgram conducted his first series of experiments with a sample of 20- to 50-year-old men, 
he found 65 percent of them 

 went to 450 volts. 
 refused to deliver shocks beyond 150 volts. 
 refused to deliver shocks past the 300-volt level. 
 asked to be released from the experiment by 135 volts. 

10. The results of Aschís study are startling because the study did not employ any 

 experimental realism. 
 groups larger than six persons. 
 open, obvious pressure to conform. 
 judgments about unambiguous stimuli. 

11.  In the Asch study on conformity, researchers found that 37% of the time American participants conformed to 
the incorrect perceptual judgments made by confederates. When this study was performed in a variety of cultures, 
it was found that:

 in most other cultures, the conformity rate was lower. 
 in most other cultures, the conformity rate was higher. 
 conformity rates were generally higher in collectivistic cultures. 
 conformity rates were generally higher in individualistic cultures.
 
 12. The level of obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when the "teacher" was ________ the 
 experimenter and _________ the "learner."

† far from; close to 
† close to; far from 
† far from; far from 
† close to; close to

13. Bob is the first one to hand in the exam in psychology class. The instructor is committing the fundamental 
attribution error if he infers that Bob

  is in a hurry to get to his next class. 
  is the most impatient person in the class. 
  studied well & found the test to be very easy. 
 gave up because he didn't know any of the answers. 
   
14. The tendency to focus on people's personality traits & ignore ________ when explaining behavior is called 
the fundamental attribution error. 

  their attitudes 
  internal factors 
  situational variables 
  unconscious motives 
  
15. Which of the following did not conduct experiments into Conformity ? 

  Asch 
  Milgram 
  Zimbardo 
  Bierbrauer
   
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                             Social Psychology
                               Robert C. Gates