Diminished Responsibility
                 Doing Together What We Would Never Do Alone

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on module18 & 19. The questions 
are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam two. You can, in fact, 
expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal 
with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are 
responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, 
& material on the web site.

---- Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. ----

1. Social loafing would be most likely to occur in

 factory workers who are each paid according to how many lamps they assemble.
 college students working on a group project for which they will all receive the same grade.
 a group of golfers competing for first place in a tournament.
 political candidates who hope to win a seat on the city council.

2. When people cooperate on additive tasks, contributing their efforts toward a common goal, 

 they may be less motivated to perform well. 
 individual effort is facilitated by social arousal. 
 their efforts are usually boosted by a social bonding. 
 the presence of others stimulates them to work harder. 

3. Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to 

 be insensitive to the needs of others. 
 violate social norms when no one is paying attention. 
 perform an unfamiliar task more poorly when others are around. 
 exert less effort when they put their efforts toward a common goal. 

4. People who benefit from the group but give little in return are referred to as 

5. Making group members’ performance individually identifiable seems to be one 
effective strategy for reducing 

 social loafing. 
 minority influence. 
 social facilitation. 
 group polarization. 

6. Which of the following is true about social loafing? 

 social loafers don't ride free. 
 The group situation decreases evaluation apprehension. 
 Individual members feel responsible for group performance & outcomes. 
 When people know they are being individually monitored, they are tempted to free-ride. 

7. When groups are given challenging objectives, when they are rewarded for group success, 
& when there is a spirit of commitment to the team, group members 

 tend to free-ride. 
 experience social facilitation. 
 work hard & make their best effort. 
 tend to become deindividualized. 

8. People in groups loaf less when 

 the task is aversive. 
 they work on a simple task with strangers. 
 the group is made up of a small number of friends. 
 all group members have comparable levels of self-esteem. 

9. Social loafing would be least likely to occur in 

 a work crew building a new bridge. 
 Club Scouts who must gather wood for a campfire. 
 Girl Scouts who hold a bake sale to raise money. 
 production workers paid on the basis of individual performance. 

10. Research suggests that social loafing occurs 

 less in collectivist cultures. 
 less in individualist cultures. 
 at equal levels in both collectivist & individualist cultures. 
 at elevated levels in both collectivist & individualist cultures. 

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11 . A loss of self-awareness & evaluation apprehension can lead to 

 coactor effects. 
 social facilitation. 
 minority influence effects. 

12. People who are made self-aware, e.g. by acting in front of a mirror or TV camera, have 
been found to 

 show increased self-confidence. 
 behave more consistently with their attitudes. 
 be less thoughtful in analyzing complex social issues. 
 be more vulnerable to persuasive appeals that run counter to social norms. 

13. ______ is the other side of the coin from self-awareness. 

 Group immersion. 
 Social facilitation. 
 Physical anonymity. 

14. Which of the following pairs are most clearly opposites? 

 minority influence & leadership 
 group polarization & group consensus 
 deindividuation & self-awareness 
 groupthink & the accentuation phenomenon 

15. Compared to self-aware people, deindividuated people are 

 more restrained. 
 less self-regulated. 
 less responsive to the situation 
 less likely to act without thinking about their own values. 

16. On Halloween night, Diener et. al. conducted a study of trick-or-treat theft. Given a 
chance to steal candy, the children who were ______________ were most likely steal. 

 frustrated & alone 
 anonymous & alone 
 frustrated & in a group 
 anonymous & in a group 

17. People are more likely to verbally push a person to jump off a bridge when it is dark & 
 the crowd is large. 
 the crowd is small. 
 the crowd is frustrated. 
 the crowd is predominantly female. 

18. Based on research, who is most likely to honk aggressively at someone stopped at a 
green light? 

 A male driver of a convertible. 
 A female driver of a convertible. 
 Any driver of a car with the top up. 
 A male driver of a red sport utility vehicle. 

19. Which of the following circumstances contributes to people becoming deindividuated? 

 When they are physically anonymous. 
 When they are immersed in a large group. 
 When they are involved in arousing, distracting activities. 
 All of these contribute to people becoming deindividuated. 

20. Given the relationship between self-awareness & deindividuation, the parting advice of 
a parent to a teenager going to a party might well be, “have fun, and ______.” 

 stay with the group 
 remember who you are 
 relax as much as you can 
 don’t worry about being popular

                             Social Psychology
                               Robert C. Gates