Causes Of Conflict

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on module 28. The questions 
are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam three. You can, in fact, 
expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal 
with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are 
responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, 
& material on the web site.

---- Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. ----

1. In a non-zero-sum game,

• altruistic motives dominate.
 • both can win and both can lose.
  • one side wins and the other loses.
   • one’s gains equals another’s losses.

2. Conflict is defined as 

• competition for mutually exclusive goals. 
 • dissatisfaction with relationship outcomes. 
  • perceived incompatibility of actions or goals. 
  • hostility that results from frustrating interaction. 

3. In playing the Prisoners’ Dilemma, you would personally obtain the best deal on 
any given trial if you ________ & the other person _________ . 

• confess; confesses 
 • don’t confess; confesses 
  • confess; doesn’t confess 
   • don’t confess; doesn’t confess 

4. In the Tragedy of the Commons, the “commons” refers to 

 stolen goods. 
 disputed border territory. 
 any shared & limited resource. 
 private property that repeatedly changes ownership. 

5. In both the Prisoners’ Dilemma & the Tragedy of the Commons, people are tempted 
to explain their own behavior ____________ & others’ behavior ____________. 

 situationally; situationally 
 situationally; dispositionally 
 dispositionally; situationally 
 dispositionally; dispositionally 

6. The smaller the commons, the more 

 responsibility each person feels for it. 
 apathetic people are about its preservation. 
 intense the conflict among individual members. 
 the more likely communication will take the form of intimidation & deception. 

7. Equity exists when 

 partners share equally in the rewards of collective effort. 
 rewards are distributed in proportion to individuals’ contributions. 
 rewards are distributed in relation to individuals’ needs or deservingness. 
 group members decide among themselves how rewards are to be distributed. 

8. Research indicates that the more people value their inputs, the more likely they are to 

 feel incompetent & unworthy. 
 tolerate exploitation from others without any retaliation. 
 feel that a given outcome from a relationship is sufficient. 
 feel under benefited in a relationship & inclined to retaliate. 

9. The reciprocal negative views that parties in conflict often hold of one another are referred to as 

• reciprocal illusions. 
 • complementary images. 
  • stereotypic reciprocation. 
   • mirror-image perceptions. 

10. Giving carpoolers incentives such as reduced tolls is a real-life example of resolving social 
dilemmas by 

• regulation. 
 • changing the payoffs. 
  • appealing to altruistic norms. 
   • decreasing the size of the commons. 
11. In a single play of the prisoner's dilemma game, the highest possible individual payoff goes to a player who: 

•  competes while the other player competes. 
 •  cooperates while the other player competes. 
  •  competes while the other player cooperates. 
   •  cooperates while the other player also cooperates. 

                             Social Psychology
                               Robert C. Gates