Reasons for Unreason

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on module 8. The 
questions are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam one. You 
can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, 
may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You 
are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, 
& material on the web site.

---- Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. ----

1. When baseball’s rookie-of-the-year has a more ordinary second year, we shouldn’t be surprised. 
This fact is easily explained by

 illusory correlations.
 the base-rate fallacy.
 the illusion of control.
 regression toward the average.

2. A major reason for learning about social thinking & examining our errors & biases is to 

 develop more realistic self-esteem. 
 develop our capacity for critical thinking. 
 become more effective in influencing others. 
 develop more positive interpersonal relationships. 

3. Which of the following is a reason for unreason? 

 Our preconceptions control our interpretations. (Kulechov effect). 
 Our beliefs can generate their own conclusions (self-fulfilling prophecies). 
 We misperceive correlation & control (illusory correlation & Illusion of control). 
 We are more swayed by memorable events than by facts (availability heuristic). 
 We are often swayed more by anecdotes than by statistical facts (base-rate fallacy). 
 All of the above are reasons for unreason. 

4. The fact that a neutral-faced actor can seem sad, thoughtful, or happy depending on whether a 
dead woman, a dish of soup, or a girl playing were seen just prior to the actor’s face is known 
as the 

 Kulechov effect. 
 base rate fallacy. 
 availability heuristic. 
 hostile media phenomenon. 

5. To judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its 
occurrence is called the 

 confirmation bias. 
 availability heuristic. 
 "rule of thumb" heuristic. 
 belief perseverance phenomenon. 

6. The perception of a relationship where none exists is called 

 base rate fallacy. 
 illusory correlation. 
 counterfactual thinking. 
 regression toward the average. 

7. The idea that chance events are subject to our influence is known as 

 illusory correlation. 
 the illusion of control. 
 counterfactual thinking. 
 behavioral confirmation. 

8. The illusion of control may arise because we fail to recognize 

 our susceptibility to base-rate fallacy. 
 our tendency to counterfactual thinking. 
 the operation of the availability heuristic. 
 the statistical phenomenon of regression toward the average. 

9. The tendency for one’s expectations to evoke behavior that confirms the expectations is called 

 belief confirmation. 
 cognitive perseverance. 
 self-confirming validity. 
 self-fulfilling prophecy. 

10. When our expectations lead us to act in ways that induce others to confirm those expectations, 
it's called 

 illusion of control. 
 illusory correlation. 
 behavioral confirmation. 
 counter intuitive thinking. 

11. Which of the following is also know as the Anecdotal Fallacy? 

 illusory correlation 
 illusion of control 
 behavioral confirmation 
 availability heuristic

12. Which of the following is the label for the belief that probability rates are false? 

 Base Rate Fallacy 
 Regression towards the average (mean) 
 Availability Heuristic 
 Pygmalion effect

13. Which of the following involves the idea that chance events are subject to our influence, 
e.g. when gambling. 

 illusory correlation 
 illusion of control 
 behavioral confirmation 
 availability heuristic

14. A special type of self-fulfilling prophecy that has engendered particular interest among 
social psychologists is 

 illusory correlation. 
 the Pygmalion effect. 
 behavioral confirmation. 
 availability heuristic.

                                                  Social Psychology
                                                    Robert C. Gates