Behavior & Belief

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on module 9. The 
questions are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam one. You 
can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, 
may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You 
are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, 
& material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. 
1. Carl Festinger found that feelings of tension arise when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent 
cognitions (e.g., dating someone even though you think that person is mean & ugly). He called this:

•  cognitive conformity. 
 •  cognitive compliance. 
  •  cognitive dissonance. 
   •  cognitive obsolescence.
2. According to self-perception theory, we learn about ourselves
•  through years of psychoanalysis. 
 •  through direct awareness of inner thoughts & feelings. 
  •  through stories we construct and share with one another. 
   •  by looking at our behaviors and inferring our internal states.
3. According to cognitive dissonance theory, people seek to avoid
•  excessive stimulation. 
 •  people who are argumentative. 
  •  music which is not harmonious. 
   •  rebellious or negative reactions. 
    •  contradictions between behaviors & beliefs.
4. Which of the following would be the best example of lowballing?
•  stooping to a low personal insult 
 •  pitching the ball below the batter's knees 
  •  selling at a lower price than any competitor 
   •  delivering less than was promised after a decision has been made 
    •  using words too simple or to complex for the sophistication of the buyer
5. Cognitive dissonance theory is a theory of
•  value. 
 •  learning. 
  •  consistency 
   •  critical cognition.
6. Which of the following statements about the effects of moral & immoral action is correct? 
 •  both evil acts & moral acts can shape the self. 
  •  moral acts are internalized only if they are prompted by significant rewards or threats. 
   •  people induced to act in evil ways quickly renounce this pattern, whereas those who 
      are coaxed to do good continue the pattern. 
     •  none of the above.
7. Attitudes are _______ that can influence our reactions. 
 •  behaviors 
  •  intentions 
   •  memories 
    •  beliefs & feelings
8. An attitude will be only weakly linked to behavior when 
 •  the attitude is not very salient. 
  •  the attitude is not specific to the behavior. 
   •  behavior is subject to lots of other influences. 
    •  all of the above are true.
9. Which of the following terms refers to actions expected of those who occupy a particular social position?
10. Which of the following is an example that illustrates the power of self-persuasion - of attitudes following behavior? 
   role playing 
    interracial desegregation 
     the foot-in-the-door principle 
      all of these are examples of attitudes following behavior
11. Saying is most likely to become believing when 
 we already believe it anyway. 
  we are given no choice but to say it. 
   we are not forced or bribed into saying it. 
    we have said something positive but not negative.
12. if you want people to do a big favor for you, one technique is to get them to do a small favor first; this is known as the 
 door-in-the-face technique. 
  foot-in-the-door technique. 
   over justification technique. 
    under justification technique.
13. Techniques such as low-balling & foot-in-the-door are strategies for 
 reducing physical aggression. 
  improving one’s self-concept. 
   measuring a person’s attitude. 
    getting people to make a “harmless” initial commitment.
14. Which of the following theories assumes that we observe our actions for clues about our own attitudes & beliefs? 
      cognitive dissonance
15. Cognitive dissonance theory proposes that we experience _____ when our beliefs are _____. 
      fear; uncertain 
       arousal; consistent 
        tension; inconsistent 
         pleasure; inconsistent
16. The major difference between Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance & Bem's self-perception theory is the role of 
17. Dissonance theory explains attitude ______, while self-perception theory explains attitude ______.
      •  change; change 
       •  change; formation 
        •  formation; change 
         •  formation; formation
18. Attitudes influence our actions in which of the following circumstances?
      •  if we are conscious of our attitudes 
       •  if the attitude is specific to the behavior 
        •  if external influences on our words & actions are minimal 
         •  all of the above

19.  You are least likely to feel dissonance when

•  you harm a friend. 
 •  you make a difficult decision. 
  •  what you do is done privately. 
   •  you are paid money to tell a lie.
20.  The three dimensions of attitude are

•  affect, behavior, & cognition. 
 •  affect, behavior, & aptitudes. 
  •  aptitudes, behavior, & cognition. 
   •  attraction, behavior, & compliance.    

21.  Which of the following is true in reference to the self-perception & cognitive dissonance theories?

•  Evidence exists to support both theories. 
 •  Self-perception theory has more support & evidence. 
  •  Cognitive dissonance theory has more support & evidence. 
   •  The theories are mutually exclusive; therefore one has to be correct.
22.  Which of the following is a stage in the process of brainwashing?

•  presentation of the possibility of salvation 
 •  the breaking down of the self 
  •  the rebuilding of the self 
   •  all of these
23.  Experiments confirm that _______ behavior toward someone fosters liking for that person.

•  aggressive 
 •  neutral 
  •  positive 
   •  negative
24.  Which of the following supports the presumption that morality can be legislated?

•  There is no support for this presumption. 
 •  less murders after waiting periods for gun purchases was implemented 
  •  the increasing adherence to seat belt laws as penalties for nonuse are raised 
   •  the measured reduction of racial prejudice in the years after the Civil Rights act was passed

                             Social Psychology
                              Robert C. Gates