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2. Forming impressions & making judgments about the traits of others is called:
3. Stereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain traits because:
of their observable behavior
they hold utilitarian attitudes
they belong to a particular group
of the fundamental attribution error
4. Prejudice is to discrimination as:
attitude is to behavior
attribution is to schema
schema is to stereotype
underestimation is to overestimation
5. Stereotypes can best be described as
beliefs validated by fact
the effects of aggression
examples of misplaced attributions
6. Schemas are:
attitudes resulting in prejudice and discrimination
errors in attribution caused by cognitive dissonance
mental categories representing an organized collection of knowledge
factors that co-vary with the behavior we are trying to explain
7. Which of the following statements concerning a schema is not accurate?
Schemas change easily.
Information supporting a schema is attended to.
Information inconsistent with a schema is discounted.
8. An attribution is a(n):
9. The covariation principle says that in deciding between dispositional & situational explanations, we should look for three factors:
person, role, and event schemas
stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness
behavioral, affective, and cognitive components
10. In explaining a friend’s behavior, you decide that there is high consistency, low distinctiveness, & low consensus. You are most likely to make a(n) _______ attribution
11. According to the cognitive miser model, people conserve time & energy in making attributions by:
forming utilitarian attitudes
taking cognitive shortcuts
basing judgments on schemas
using the peripheral route for persuasion
12. The tendency to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors & underestimate the importance of situational ones is known as:
fundamental attribution error
13. The actor-observer effect suggests that, as actors, we attribute our behaviors to _________, but, as observers, we attribute others’ behavior to ____________.
self-schema; event schema
the situation; their disposition
14. "When I beat my average shooting score, I attribute it to my skill, but if I score below my average, I blame it on the gun sight." This is an example of the:
fundamental attribution error
15. In order to convince a freshman that academic problems can be overcome, a teacher must get the freshman to:
attribute problems to innate abilities
attribute problems to temporary factors
believe that college success is attributable in part to good luck
let the instructor assume responsibility for the student’s success for a while
16. Any belief that includes a positive or negative evaluation of some target which predisposes us to act in certain ways toward the target can be defined as a(n):
17. Which of the following is not a component of an attitude?
18. With regard to attitudes: cognitive component is to _______ as affective component is to ________.
19. Attitudes can serve 3 functions. Which of the following is not one of them?
20. The state of unpleasant psychological tension that motivates people to reduce our inconsistencies and return to a more consistent state is referred to as:
the self-serving bias
21. When a person takes a public position that is different from their private belief, they are engaging in ___________ behavior.
22. Self-perception theory suggests that we:
strive to reduce inconsistencies between our attitudes & behavior
observe our own behavior and then infer attitudes from the behavior
feel motivated to conserve time and effort by taking cognitive shortcuts
attempt to control and regulate the information that we present to others
23. Central routes for persuasion generally work on the __________, whereas peripheral routes for persuasion work primarily on the ___________.
person schema; role schema
cognitive component; affective component
fundamental attribution error; self-serving bias
24. If an audience is known to be initially opposed to a persuasive message, which of the following types of communication will be most effective in changing the audience’s attitudes?
a one-sided message
a two-sided message
a fear-inducing message
a message from a non-credible source
25. “A behavior performed because of group pressure even though that pressure involves no direct requests” is the definition of:
26. According to the decision-stage model of helping, most people don’t help other who are in trouble because they don’t:
notice the situation
carry out the assistance
choose a form of assistance
assume personal responsibility
27. Which theory proposes that we join groups to be able to measure the correctness of our attitudes & beliefs?
social comparison theory
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
informational influence theory
28. Which of the following is associated with a greater likelihood of taking on an antisocial role?
29. What does deindividuation provide an individual in a crowd?
30. Which statement is most related to the diffusion of responsibility theory?
“Someone else will probably help.”
“How are these other people reacting?”
“That individual is a legitimate authority figure.”
“It seems whenever I am with others I do a lot better.”
31. Ingroup is to outgroup as ________ is to _________.
32. In groupthink, the decision is _______ than ______.
more important; reaching agreement
more important; having a spirited debate
less important; reaching agreement
less important; having a spirited debate
33. The frustration-aggression hypothesis was modified because of research which indicated that:
aggression is genetic
cognitive factors can override aggression
aggression is an innate, biological phenomenon
people always respond to frustration with aggression
34. The majority of rapes are committed by:
rapists out to physically hurt someone
35. The study & understanding of temperament / personality belongs in the
36. When we make the "fundamental attribution error" we blame somebody’s misfortunes on
an evil leader.
their personal qualities.
factors beyond their control.
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Robert C. Gates