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- Social Psychology -

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1.  Which of the following topics would be most likely studied by a social psychologist?

•  sexism, attribution, obedience, attitudes
 •  unconditional positive regard, hypnotic amnesia
  •  systematic desensitization, UCR, dieting, superego
   •  formal operations, Korsakoff’s syndrome, fight-or-flight response

2. Forming impressions & making judgments about the traits of others is called:

a social reasoning
b person perception
c social facilitation
d person polarization

3. Stereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain traits because:

a of their observable behavior
b they hold utilitarian attitudes
c they belong to a particular group
d of the fundamental attribution error

4. Prejudice is to discrimination as:

a attitude is to behavior
b attribution is to schema
c schema is to stereotype
d underestimation is to overestimation

5. Stereotypes can best be described as

a cognitive tools
b beliefs validated by fact
c the effects of aggression
d examples of misplaced attributions

6. Schemas are:

a attitudes resulting in prejudice and discrimination
b errors in attribution caused by cognitive dissonance
c mental categories representing an organized collection of knowledge
d factors that co-vary with the behavior we are trying to explain

7. Which of the following statements concerning a schema is not accurate?

a Schemas persist.
b Schemas change easily.
c Information supporting a schema is attended to.
d Information inconsistent with a schema is discounted.

8. An attribution is a(n):

a belief
b attitude
c stereotype
d explanation

9. The covariation principle says that in deciding between dispositional & situational explanations, we should look for three factors:

a person, role, and event schemas
b stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
c consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness
d behavioral, affective, and cognitive components

10. In explaining a friend’s behavior, you decide that there is high consistency, low distinctiveness, & low consensus. You are most likely to make a(n) _______ attribution

a external
b internal
c situational
d fundamental

11. According to the cognitive miser model, people conserve time & energy in making attributions by:

a forming utilitarian attitudes
b taking cognitive shortcuts
c basing judgments on schemas
d using the peripheral route for persuasion

12. The tendency to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors & underestimate the importance of situational ones is known as:

a prejudice
b stereotyping
c schema-driven processing
d fundamental attribution error

13. The actor-observer effect suggests that, as actors, we attribute our behaviors to _________, but, as observers, we attribute others’ behavior to ____________.

a motivation; conformity
b consensus; consistency
c self-schema; event schema
d the situation; their disposition

14. "When I beat my average shooting score, I attribute it to my skill, but if I score below my average, I blame it on the gun sight." This is an example of the:

a self-serving bias
b covariation principle
c actor-observer effect
d fundamental attribution error

15. In order to convince a freshman that academic problems can be overcome, a teacher must get the freshman to:

a attribute problems to innate abilities
b attribute problems to temporary factors
c believe that college success is attributable in part to good luck
d let the instructor assume responsibility for the student’s success for a while

16. Any belief that includes a positive or negative evaluation of some target which predisposes us to act in certain ways toward the target can be defined as a(n):

a schema
b attitude
c stereotype
d attribution

17. Which of the following is not a component of an attitude?

a genetic
b affective
c cognitive
d behavioral

18. With regard to attitudes: cognitive component is to _______ as affective component is to ________.

a beliefs; actions
b behavior; actions
c emotions; feelings
d thoughts; emotions

19. Attitudes can serve 3 functions. Which of the following is not one of them?

a adjust
b interpret
c evaluate
d predispose

20. The state of unpleasant psychological tension that motivates people to reduce our inconsistencies and return to a more consistent state is referred to as:

a prejudice
b attribution
c cognitive dissonance
d the self-serving bias

21. When a person takes a public position that is different from their private belief, they are engaging in ___________ behavior.

a synergic
b persuasive
c oppositional
d counterattitudinal

22. Self-perception theory suggests that we:

a strive to reduce inconsistencies between our attitudes & behavior
b observe our own behavior and then infer attitudes from the behavior
c feel motivated to conserve time and effort by taking cognitive shortcuts
d attempt to control and regulate the information that we present to others

23. Central routes for persuasion generally work on the __________, whereas peripheral routes for persuasion work primarily on the ___________.

a disposition; situation
b person schema; role schema
c cognitive component; affective component
d fundamental attribution error; self-serving bias

24. If an audience is known to be initially opposed to a persuasive message, which of the following types of communication will be most effective in changing the audience’s attitudes?

a a one-sided message
b a two-sided message
c a fear-inducing message
d a message from a non-credible source

25. “A behavior performed because of group pressure even though that pressure involves no direct requests” is the definition of:

a obedience
b conformity
c compliance
d consistency

26. According to the decision-stage model of helping, most people don’t help other who are in trouble because they don’t:

a notice the situation
b carry out the assistance
c choose a form of assistance
d assume personal responsibility

27. Which theory proposes that we join groups to be able to measure the correctness of our attitudes & beliefs?

a attribution theory
b social comparison theory
c Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
d informational influence theory

28. Which of the following is associated with a greater likelihood of taking on an antisocial role?

a altruism
b social facilitation
c deindividuation
d informational influence

29. What does deindividuation provide an individual in a crowd?

a anonymity
b motivation
c an identity
d social inhibition

30. Which statement is most related to the diffusion of responsibility theory?

a “Someone else will probably help.”
b “How are these other people reacting?”
c “That individual is a legitimate authority figure.”
d “It seems whenever I am with others I do a lot better.”

31. Ingroup is to outgroup as ________ is to _________.

a us; them
b them; us
c conservative; liberal
d difference; similarity

32. In groupthink, the decision is _______ than ______.

a more important; reaching agreement
b more important; having a spirited debate
c less important; reaching agreement
d less important; having a spirited debate

33. The frustration-aggression hypothesis was modified because of research which indicated that:

a aggression is genetic
b cognitive factors can override aggression
c aggression is an innate, biological phenomenon
d people always respond to frustration with aggression

34. The majority of rapes are committed by:

a anger rapists
b power rapists
c sadistic rapists
d rapists out to physically hurt someone

35. The study & understanding of temperament / personality belongs in the

a physical domain.
b biosocial domain.
c cognitive domain.
d psychosocial domain.

36. When we make the "fundamental attribution error" we blame somebody’s misfortunes on

a ourselves.
b an evil leader.
c historical factors.
d their personal qualities.
d factors beyond their control.

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General Psychology
Robert C. Gates
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.  -- Freud

NewThe Grape that can with Logic absolute
The Two-and-Seventy jarring Sects confute:
The sovereign Alchemist that in a trice
Life's leaden metal into Gold transmute:
New from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam