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anchor point Eric Erikson anchor point

Ψ   In an extension of Freud's theory, Erik Erikson proposed eight successive stages of development from infancy through old age, each stage involving a crisis that must be solved.

1. Trust versus Mistrust (infant 0-1) - Hope is the virtue that develops upon successful resolution of this stage. else wise: withdrawal may occur. Unresolved: suspicious of others, making close relationships difficult.
 2. Autonomy versus Shame & Doubt (toddler 2-3) - Will / compulsion
     Unresolved: Obsessively driven, single-minded, not socially responsive.
  3. Initiative versus Guilt (preschooler 3-6) - Purpose / inhibition
      Unresolved: fearful, regretful.
   4. Industry versus Inferiority (school age 7-12) - Competence / inertia
       Unresolved: self critical of any endeavor, procrastinating, perfectionistic.
    5. Identity versus Role Confusion (adolescence, 12- 20) - Fidelity / repudiation
        Unresolved: uncertain & negative about values, lifestyle, friendships.
     6. Intimacy versus Isolation (early adulthood, 20 - 40) - Love / exclusivity
         Unresolved: anxious about closer relationships, jealous, lonely.
      7. Generativity versus Stagnation (middle adulthood, 40 - 65) - Care / reflectivity
          Unresolved: fear of failure
       8. Integrity versus Despair (late adulthood, 65 +) - Wisdom / distain
           Unresolved: no life plan, lack of awareness of personal responsibilities.

Growth & Development
Robert C. Gates