Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 10 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam three. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.
Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test.
1. Instrumental conditioning is a.k.a. :
2. Those who study cognitive learning claim that learning can take place in an individual:
who has not received any noticeable rewards, but who simply
observes & imitates.
only when the behavior is followed by an effect.
only if the learning is reflexive in nature.
who shows a change in behavior.
3. What is described as the idea that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened?
principle of continuity
law of effect
4. Law of effect is to ______ as operant conditioning is to _______.
5. The shaping procedure succeeds or fails depending on:
exactly which behaviors you reinforce
selecting the best one of several reinforcers
how many times you reinforce the target behavior
how long you are willing to wait for the target behavior to occur
6. What is the best explanation for a professional football player eating pork every day that a game is scheduled?
7. Classical is to operant as:
learned is to innate
learned is to memorized
undesirable is to desirable
involuntary is to voluntary
8. Reinforcement is to _______, as punishment is to ______.
operant conditioning; classical conditioning
9. Reinforcers, whether they be positive or negative, have the same effect on behavior, which is to:
decrease the probability that the behavior will be repeated
increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated
increase the probability that the behavior will be extinguished
decrease the probability that the behavior will be spontaneously recovered
10. Kurt & Kyle are out walking. Kurt says, “Hey, I’ve got a pebble in my shoe,” and proceeds to take off his shoe and to remove the pebble. “That feels better,” says Kurt. Kyle believes that Kurts’ behavior of removing the pebble is a ______ because it increases the chance that Kurt will repeat the behavior if another pebble gets in his shoe.
11. The value of a secondary reinforcer is:
evident to all humans
its association with things like tokens & money
14. Partial reinforcement schedules:
do not follow patterns
are less expensive, but they tend to discourage the learner
are very effective in maintaining behavior over the long run
often confuse those who have grown used to a continuous pattern of reinforcement
15. A _______ refers to a reinforcer occurring only after an unchanging number of responses take place.
17. Which of the following theorists argued that learning involves a mental representation of the environment?
B. F. Skinner
18. “I can see in my mind the layout of the town I visited last summer.” This person is using her ______ of the town.
23. ______ is a mental process marked by sudden and unexpected solution of a problem.
25. A newsletter article has the headline, “Scientists find innate tendency that helps learning.” You realize that the “innate tendency” refers to:
26. Which of the following statements regarding imprinting is not true?
imprinting is irreversible
imprinting takes place during a critical or sensitive period
imprinting improves the chance that the animals will survive
imprinting is evident in mature animals as well as in newborn animals
27. A biological tendency found in animals to be able to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues more easily than other cues is called:
28. Time-out is preferable to physical punishment because:
time-out is easier to administer
time-out is more likely to involve observational learning
physical punishment is difficult to record on a cumulative record
physical punishment may cause negative emotional reactions and negative feelings toward the punisher
29. The treatment or therapy used to modify problem behavior based on the principles of learning is called