A positive attitude may not solve all your problems, but it will annoy enough people to make it worth the effort. - Herm Albright (1876 - 1944) Knowledge will not be acquired without pains and application. It is troublesome and deep digging for pure waters; but when once you come to the spring, they rise up and meet you. -- Felton.


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Ψ  Self Test for Operant & Cognitive Approaches to Learning

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 10 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam three. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test.

1. Instrumental conditioning is a.k.a. :

a operant conditioning
b classical conditioning
c instinctual conditioning
d imprinting conditioning

2. Those who study cognitive learning claim that learning can take place in an individual:

a who has not received any noticeable rewards, but who simply
      observes & imitates.

b only when the behavior is followed by an effect.
c only if the learning is reflexive in nature.
d who shows a change in behavior.

3. What is described as the idea that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened?

a principle of continuity
b behavioral facilitation
c cognitive learning
d law of effect

4. Law of effect is to ______ as operant conditioning is to _______.

a Skinner; Rescorla
b Tolman; Bandura
c Thorndike; Skinner
d Skinner; Thorndike

5. The shaping procedure succeeds or fails depending on:

a exactly which behaviors you reinforce
b selecting the best one of several reinforcers
c how many times you reinforce the target behavior
d how long you are willing to wait for the target behavior to occur

6. What is the best explanation for a professional football player eating pork every day that a game is scheduled?

a discrimination
b generalization
c observational learning
d superstitious behavior

7. Classical is to operant as:

a learned is to innate
b learned is to memorized
c undesirable is to desirable
d involuntary is to voluntary

8. Reinforcement is to _______, as punishment is to ______.

a decrease; increase
b decrease; decrease
c increase; decrease
d operant conditioning; classical conditioning

9. Reinforcers, whether they be positive or negative, have the same effect on behavior, which is to:

a decrease the probability that the behavior will be repeated
b increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated
c increase the probability that the behavior will be extinguished
d decrease the probability that the behavior will be spontaneously recovered

10. Kurt & Kyle are out walking. Kurt says, “Hey, I’ve got a pebble in my shoe,” and proceeds to take off his shoe and to remove the pebble. “That feels better,” says Kurt. Kyle believes that Kurts’ behavior of removing the pebble is a ______ because it increases the chance that Kurt will repeat the behavior if another pebble gets in his shoe.

a positive punisher
b positive reinforcer
c negative reinforcer
d unconditioned stimulus

11. The value of a secondary reinforcer is:

a innate
b learned
c evident to all humans
d its association with things like tokens & money

12. What refers to removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response that decreases the odds that the response will recur?

a Punishment
b Latent punishment
c Positive punishment
d Negative punishment

13. When is continuous reinforcement most appropriate?

a only after the conditioning has taken place
b when the behavior is an involuntary reflex
c when the behavior is a voluntary response
d in the initial stages of operant conditioning

14. Partial reinforcement schedules:

a do not follow patterns
b are less expensive, but they tend to discourage the learner
c are very effective in maintaining behavior over the long run
d often confuse those who have grown used to a continuous pattern of reinforcement

15. A _______ refers to a reinforcer occurring only after an unchanging number of responses take place.

a fixed-ratio
b variable-ratio
c fixed-interval
d variable-interval

16. After a period of extinction, a temporary recovery in rate of responding is called:

a extinction
b generalization
c discrimination
d spontaneous performance

17. Which of the following theorists argued that learning involves a mental representation of the environment?

a B. F. Skinner
b Albert Bandura
c Edward Tolman
d Wolfgang Koehler

18. “I can see in my mind the layout of the town I visited last summer.” This person is using her ______ of the town.

a imprinting
b cognitive map
c latent schema
d cognitive network

19. Which of the following theorists argued that learning can take place when someone is watching another person and performs that behavior even when not reinforced?

a B. F. Skinner
b Albert Bandura
c Edward Tolman
d Wolfgang Koehler

20. The most important conclusion from the Bandura Bobo doll study is that:

a we create cognitive maps of dolls
b behavior can be modified by simply watching a live model
c behavior can be modified throughout negative punishment
d behavior can be modified by providing secondary reinforcers

21. “I know and understand this material,” says Rick. His instructor would agree with him. But when it comes time to prove his understanding on the exam, he typically doesn’t do well. This exemplifies the idea of:

a shaping
b insight learning
c a lack of preparedness
d the learning-performance distinction

22. The four processes necessary for observational learning are attention, memory, imitation, and ___________.

a motivation / desire
b generalization
c reinforcement
d discrimination

23. ______ is a mental process marked by sudden and unexpected solution of a problem.

a Insight learning
b Cognitive learning
c Categorical learning
d Operant conditioning

24. “Ah ha!” is to ______ as reinforcement is to _______.

a preparedness; cognitive theory
b imprinting; classical conditioning
c insight learning; operant conditioning
d spontaneous recovery; insight learning

25. A newsletter article has the headline, “Scientists find innate tendency that helps learning.” You realize that the “innate tendency” refers to:

a behavioral factors
b biological factors
c cognitive factors
d environmental stimuli

26. Which of the following statements regarding imprinting is not true?

a imprinting is irreversible
b imprinting takes place during a critical or sensitive period
c imprinting improves the chance that the animals will survive
d imprinting is evident in mature animals as well as in newborn animals

27. A biological tendency found in animals to be able to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues more easily than other cues is called:

a prepared learning
b imprinting
c ethology
d insight

28. Time-out is preferable to physical punishment because:

a time-out is easier to administer
b time-out is more likely to involve observational learning
c physical punishment is difficult to record on a cumulative record
d physical punishment may cause negative emotional reactions and negative feelings toward the punisher

29. The treatment or therapy used to modify problem behavior based on the principles of learning is called

a covert rehearsal
b self-reinforcement
c behavior modification
d observational learning

30. Spanking is an example of

a negative reinforcement
b negative punishment
c positive punishment
d time-out

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General Psychology
Robert C. Gates
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.  -- Freud

New A Book of Verses underneath the Bough,
A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread---and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness---
Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow! .
New from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam