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Ψ  Self Test for Infancy & Childhood

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 17 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam five. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test.

1. Nature is to nurture as _______ is to _______.

a culture; society
b biology; physics
c genetics; environment
d environment; genetics

2. The three phases of the prenatal period in the correct order are:

a germinal, fascia, zygote
b germinal, embryonic, fetal
c mitosial, chromosomal, fetal
d embryonic, preoperational, operational

3. The medical test called __________ is performed to indicate genetic problems like __________.

a amniocentesis / Down syndrome
b fetal stage assessment / brain damage
c teratogen identification / lead poisoning
d placentosis / fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

4. Chemicals that can cause birth defects are called:

a teratogens
b biohazards
c biochemoses
d amniocentesis

5. The best piece of advice given to pregnant women regarding drug use would be:

a use of all drugs should be avoided
b recreational drug use is probably ok
c social drinking does not seem to have any effect on the unborn child
d we do not know enough about the effects of drugs on prenatal development to give solid advice

6. Which statement is most accurate in describing the order from smallest to largest?

a zygote, genes, DNA, chromosomes
b DNA, zygote, genes, chromosomes
c genes, DNA, chromosomes, zygote
d DNA, genes, chromosomes, zygote

7. Infants first use their more developed arms, and then their fingers, whose control develops later — this is the:

a principle of maturation
b proximodistal principle
c cephalocaudal principle
d principle of normal development

8. Development occurs in a sequential and orderly fashion because of a genetic plan called:

a maturation
b proximodistal
c cephalocaudal
d norms for development

9. An infant’s characteristic mood, activity level, and attention span are referred to as components of the infant’s:

a genotype
b phenotype
c personality
d temperament

10. According to longitudinal data, the majority of babies have ________ temperaments.

a easy
b difficult
c no-single category
d slow-to-warm-up

11. With regard to attachment, which statement is true?

a Secure attachment is associated with poor relationships
b Attachment appears to have no significant long-term effects.
c Insecurely attached infants explore their environments more freely.
d Secure attachment is associated with mother’s sensitivity & responsiveness to the infant.

12. Longitudinal is to _____ as cross-sectional is to _____.

a positional; placement
b time; groups
c sequence; quanity
d age; population

13. The essence of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is that:

a a child’s picture of the world is slowly, gradually shaped by a steady
       succession of learning experiences

b each stage is characterized by a distinctly different way of
       understanding the world

c through thousands and thousands of mistakes, the child gradually
       builds a factual picture of the world

d the mind of a child is like the mind of an adult - there just isn’t as much
       information in it

14. When existing knowledge is changed because of new information being assimilated, the process called _____________ has taken place.

a conservation
b positive assimilation
c accommodation
d object permanence

15. Which of the following is the correct sequence for Piaget’s cognitive stages?

a preoperational, formal operations, sensorimotor, concrete operations
b preoperational, permanent operations, egocentrism, formal operations
c sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations
d sensorimotor, egocentrism, concrete operations, permanent operations

16. The concept of object permanence develops during Piaget's ______ stage.

a sensorimotor
b preoperational
c concrete operational
d formal operational

17. A child is shown two identical balls of clay. Then an adult squashes one ball into a pancake shape. She then asks the child if one of the shapes contains more clay and the child answers, “Yes, the pancake does.” In Piagetian terms, the child has not yet reached:

a decentricity
b object permanence
c sensorimotor stage
d concrete operational stage

18. ____________ refers to seeing and thinking of the world from your own viewpoint and having difficulty appreciating another’s viewpoint

a Conservation
b Conceited thinking
c Egocentric thinking
d Egotistical thinking

19. In what stage can an individual consider abstract ideas & hypothetical concepts?

a conservation
b preoperations
c formal operations
d concrete operations

20. Which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages according to Freud?

a anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital
b oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
c projection, fixation, displacement, genital
d sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, formal

21. Both Freud’s and Erikson’s theories have been criticized for being _____ and not _________.

a general; specific
b specific; general
c descriptive; explanatory
d explanatory; descriptive

22. A number of factors have been identified that decrease the impact of life stresses. These factors are referred to as:

a resiliency
b androgyny
c assimilation
d conservation

23. The combination of attitudes and behaviors considered appropriate and expected for a particular sex in a given culture is known as:

a sex typing
b gender role
c gender identity
d gender orientation

24. Social and cognitive influences on how we interpret, organize, and use information characterizes ________.

a Freudian theory
b social role theory
c the parent modeling model
d affective-primary theory

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General Psychology
Robert C. Gates
It is impossible to overlook the extent to which civilization is built upon a renunciation of instinct.  -- Freud

New Into this Universe, and Why not knowing,
Nor Whence, like Water willy-nilly flowing;
And out of it, as Wind along the Waste,
I know not Whither, willy-nilly blowing.
New from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam