Knowledge will not be acquired without pains and application. It is troublesome and deep digging for pure waters; but when once you come to the spring, they rise up and meet you. -- Felton.


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Ψ  Self Test for
- Sleep & Dreams -

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 7 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam two. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you are right.

1. Consciousness can be defined as

•  the process by which a sensation becomes a perception.
 •  different levels of awareness of one’s thoughts and feelings.
  •  the cognitive reflection of the physical events one encounters.
   •  introspective thinking which results in mental experiences.

2.  Answering this question correctly is an example of a(n) _____ since it requires concentration & your full attention.

•  unconscious process
 •  automatic process
  •  controlled process
   •  introspective process

3.  Controlled processes is to automatic processes as _________ is to _________.

•  absolute threshold; JND
 •  daydreaming; night dreaming
  •  full awareness; little awareness
   •  suprachiasmatic nucleus; basal ganglia

4.  Professor Smith is lecturing and notices a student in the back of the room who appears to be daydreaming. Professor Smith startles the student by asking, “Excuse me. Can I help you?” Given what we know about daydreaming, the student is most likely to be daydreaming about

•  a sexual fantasy.
 •  lying on the beach soaking up the sun.
  •  “I was just thinking about a paper I have to write in another course.”
   •  “I was just thinking what I would do if a won the Mega Lotto tonight."

5.  ________ refers to awareness that differs from normal consciousness.

•  Altered states
 •  Controlled processes
  •  Automatic processes
   •  Cognitive unconscious

6.  The term ________ refers to mental & emotional processes of which we are unaware but that influence our conscious thoughts & behaviors.

•  coma
 •  altered states
  •  unconsciousness
   •  implicit or nondeclarative memory

7.  Implicit memory is to ______ as unconscious is to ________.

•  primary; secondary
 •  subjective; objective
  •  motor & emotional memories; primary memories
   •  motor and emotional memories; threatening memories

8.  What is the literal meaning of circadian?

•  “about a day”
 •  “the mind’s day”
  •  “the mind’s clock”
   •  “time has no end”

9.  The sun is rising. The morning light is becoming brighter. What’s happening to your level of melatonin?

•  increases
 •  decreases
  •  stabilizing
   •  melatonin is not affected by light levels

10. REM brain waves have ______ frequency and _____ amplitude.

•  no; slow
 •  slow; high
  •  high; low
   •  low; fast

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

11.  REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because

•  the body does not need REM sleep, but does need regular sleep.
 •  although asleep, the brain waves are identical to those recorded awake.
  •  dreams often make no sense to the individual once they are awake.
   •  REM sleep occurs immediately following Stage 1 sleep and immediately
      before Stage 2 sleep.

12.  REM rebound is caused by

•  narcolepsy.
 •  sleep deprivation.
  •  REM deprivation.
   •  delta wave synchrony.

13.  Freud’s interpretation of dreams was based on the assumption that

•  the content of dreams had to be considered symbolic.
 •  dream content reflected what worried us in our waking state.
  •  dream content was a continuation of the events in our daily lives.
   •  dreams were similar to the hallucinations experienced by schizophrenics.

14.  What tends to happen to people as they age with regard to circadian preference?

•  People tend to become more like evening persons after reaching 50.
 •  People tend to become more like morning persons after reaching 50.
  •  People tend to become more like afternoon persons after reaching 50.
   •  People's tendency for circadian preference remains unchanged until the late 70’s.

15.  The _________ theory suggests that sleep evolved because it prevented energy waste & minimized exposure to dangers.

•  repair
 •  adaptive
  •  Freudian
   •  activation-synthesis

16.  The VPN (ventrolateral preoptic nucleus) acts as a

•  master on-off switch for sleep.
 •  clue that makes it possible to tell if a sleeper is dreaming.
  •  censor that disguises sexual and aggressive wishes in dreams.
   •  light enhancer that combats feelings of depression during the winter months

17.  Depression typically beginning in fall & ending in the spring characterizes

•  bipolar disorder.
 •  dysthymia disorder.
  •  seasonal affective disorder
   •  seasonal depression syndromes.

18.  According to the activation-synthesis theory

•  there is no reason to interpret dreams.
 •  dreams are a continuation of our waking thoughts.
  •  dreams reflect unconscious desires & anxieties.
   •  it is necessary to dream for our psychological well-being.

19.  After experiencing months of poor sleep, Ray is evaluated in a sleep laboratory. After his evaluation his doctor tells him that he is suffering from sleep apnea. This means that Ray has

•  insomnia caused by anxiety.
 •  a condition in which he stops breathing while he sleeps.
  •  insomnia caused by the excessive use of sedatives during the day.
   •  a disorder in which he falls asleep uncontrollably during the day but not at night.

20.  Irresistible attacks of sleepiness & muscle paralysis are symptoms of a sleep disorder called

•  insomnia.
 •  narcolepsy.
  •  sleep apnea.
   •  night terrors.

21. The suprachiasmatic nucleus instructs the __________ gland to release __________ .

•  pineal; serotonin