Passive acceptance of the teacher's wisdom is easy to most boys and girls. It involves no effort of independent thought, and seems rational because the teacher knows more than his pupils; it is moreover the way to win the favour of the teacher unless he is a very exceptional man. Yet the habit of passive acceptance is a disastrous one in later life. It causes man to seek and to accept a leader, and to accept as a leader whoever is established in that position. 
Bertrand Russell (1872 - 1970) Knowledge will not be acquired without pains and application. It is troublesome and deep digging for pure waters; but when once you come to the spring, they rise up and meet you. -- Felton.


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Ψ  Self Test for Classical Conditioning

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 9 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam three. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you are right.

1.  A relatively enduring change in behavior that results from previous experience with certain stimuli & responses is the definition of

•  learning.
 •  extinction.
  •  imprinting.
   •  generalization.

2.  All of the following are approaches to understanding how learning occurs except

•  physical learning.
 •  cognitive learning.
  •  operant conditioning.
   •  classical conditioning.

3.  Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in placing the emphasis on

•  waiting until the subject accidentally performs the right behavior.
 •  pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned response.
  •  allowing subjects to watch others perform some behavior.
   •  consequences that follow some behavior.

4.  Pavlov is to Bandura as _________ is to ________.

•  cognitive learning; operant conditioning
 •  cognitive learning; classical conditioning
  •  classical conditioning; cognitive learning
   •  cognitive learning; classical conditioning

5.  Unconditioned is to conditioned as _______ is to ________.

•  learned; reflex
 •  reflex; learned
  •  food; salivation
   •  response; stimulus

6.  Robert is trying to remember the procedure used to establish classical conditioning. He would be best to remember

•  CS, CR.
 •  CS, UCS, UCR.
  •  neutral stimulus, UCS, UCR.
   •  CR, UCS, neutral stimulus.

7.  Since S -> R, then obviously UCS ->UCR, so naturally CS->

•  CR.
 •  UCR.
  •  UCS.
   •  neutral stimulus.

8.  In classical conditioning, generalization is adaptive because

•  dangerous UCS no longer trigger the UCR.
 •  we learn that some behaviors lead to reinforcement.
  •  the CR is capable of returning following a period of extinction.
   •  we are able to respond to a stimulus that resembles the original CS.

9.  In classical conditioning, when an organism responds to some stimuli, but not to others, the organism is demonstrating

•  generalization.
 •  discrimination.
  •  cognitive learning.
   •  spontaneous recovery.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

10.  Discrimination is to narrow as generalization is to ________.

•  broad
 •  restrict
  •  learned
   •  reappearance

11.  When a conditioned stimulus (e.g., a tone) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., meat), _________ eventually will occur.

•  spontaneous recovery
 •  generalization
  •  discrimination
   •  extinction

12.  Spontaneous recovery is defined as the

•  resultant product of cognitive learning.
 •  reappearance of a conditioned response.
  •  generalization of a response to other similar stimuli.
   •  discrimination of certain stimuli from other similar stimuli.

13.  What concept refers to the usefulness of certain abilities that tend to increase an animal’s chance of survival?

•  adaptive value
 •  evolved utility
  •  survival predisposition
   •  unconditioned preparedness

14.  Taste-aversion learning may occur

•  when reinforcement is delayed.
 •  without a NS being present.
  •  when the NS does not predict the UCS.
   •  when there is a delay between the NS & the UCR.

15.  For some animals, certain combinations of conditioned & unconditioned stimuli which are more easily associated are called

•  discrimination.
 •  preparedness.
  •  species-specificity.
   •  classical conditioning.

16.  Positive or negative feelings can be experienced when a stimulus is encountered that initially accompanied a painful or pleasant event. This feeling is called a

•  phobia.
 •  learned affect.
  •  mood enhanced response.
   •  conditioned emotional response.

17.  A ________ is an anxiety disorder that involves an intense & irrational fear.

•  Phobia
 •  Conditioned fear
  •  Desensitization disorder
   •  Conditioned emotional response

18.  Pavlov’s explanation of classical conditioning is called

•  the cognitive perspective.
 •  stimulus substitution.
  •  generalization theory.
   •  prediction theory.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

19.  Of the following words, which one is most descriptive of the contiguity theory of classical conditioning?

•  pair
 •  predict
  •  subtract
   •  substitute

20.  The fact that backward conditioning does not usually result in classical conditioning supports

•  the contiguity theory.
 •  stimulus generalization.
  •  the cognitive perspective.
   •  emotional conditioned response.

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