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New Practice Test for The First Two Years: Cognitive Development


Ψ  Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Chapter 6 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit twol. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

    Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you are right.

1.  Newborns prefer to hear human speech over other sounds. They prefer to listen to high-pitched, simplified, & repetitive adult speech. This form of speech is sometimes called baby talk, as it is directed to babies, & sometimes motherese, since mothers all over the world speak it.  Both these terms may be misleading, so psychologists prefer the more formal term

•  babbling.
 •  habituation.
  •  holophrasing.
   •  child-directed speech.

2.  Whether an affordance is perceived & acted upon depends on

•  sensory awareness.
 •  immediate motivation.
  •  current development.
   •  past experience.
    •  all of the above.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

3.  Kurt is in substage 6 of Piaget's stages of sensorimotor intelligence. Consequently, when he sees his sister running into another room to hide his favorite toy, Kurt will

•  cry in distress but not look for the toy.
 •  look for it only briefly and then give up.
  •  stare blankly at the place where he last saw the toy & then turn his attention to something else.
    •  go into the other room & search with the conviction that toys don't just disappear when they're out of sight.

4.  According to dynamic perception, a 1 year old would most prefer to look at

•  a mobile spinning over her head.
 •  a brightly colored ball.
  •  a puzzle held by her aunt.
   •  a DVD player playing children's music.

5. Two-year-old Billy liked to tug on his dog's tail. One day, he tried to pull the
     cat's tail and the cat scratched him. After that, Billy knew that only some
     tails are safe to pull. Billy has undergone the process known as

a habituation.
b assimilation.
c accommodation.
d classical conditioning.

6. Which of the following children is assimilating?

a Linda, who just started to walk and noticed that walking on the slippery
       kitchen floor requires a smaller, more cautious step than walking
       on the carpet.

b Kim, who spent her first hour in daycare crying for her mother but then
       decided to stop crying and join some of the other children who were
       playing in the sandbox.

c Rose, who made her father very happy when she started to call him
       "dada," and then when they went to the park called out "dada" every time
       a man passed by her stroller.

d Lilly, who on her first visit to the pediatrician stared at the colorful mural
       on the wall for a long time before switching her gaze to survey the
       other goings on in the waiting room.

7. Baillargeon's research using "impossible events" has revealed that 6-month old infants:

a believe anything is possible.
b understand object permanence before they can search for hidden objects.
c understand object permanence when they can crawl.
d do not know hidden objects can support visible objects.

8. Bob's first words were "Want" and "Mine." Donna's first words were "Cup" & "Bath." Bob has an ________ style of language & Donna has an ________ style of language.

a expressive; expressive
b expressive; referential
c referential; expressive
d referential; referential

9. If a child says "Cup," which of the following parental responses to the child's
    utterance would constitute a contingent dialogue?

a "Do you want a drink in your cup? Would you like some milk?"
b "Good! You said "Cup." Now if you say "Juice," I'll pour some in your cup."
c "What about your cup? Tell me exactly what you want."
d "Here. You want it? You can have it."

10.  Every day when Kimberly gives her two-year-old daughter Rose a bath, the two of them engage in a two-way conversation pertaining to the rubber duck, the soap, the bath water, and the towel. This type of conversation is called

•  receptive language.
 •  contextual dialogue.
  •  contingent dialogue.
   •  contingent dialogue.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

11. Which of the following would be considered a launching event?

a the second step in a sequence of events.
b speaking directed at a baby.
c slowly drinking juice.
d knocking over the 1st domino in a row of dominoes.

12. The 1st  two stages of sensorimotor thought involve

a creative actions.
b objects & people.
c the baby's own body.
d creative thoughts.

13. An example of stage three behavior is

a searching for a teddy bear hidden under a blanket.
b making a noise, looking for a smile, & smiling back.
c trying to dress like adults.
d thumb sucking & self soothing.

14. Piaget's sixth stage of senorimotor intelligence is

a mental combinations.
b primary reactions.
c new adaptations.
d interesting observations.

15. On average, children began to say recognizable words at about:

a 3 months of age.
b 6 months of age.
c 9 months of age.
d 1 year of age.

16. Ed uses the word "bird" to name the family parrot but not other birds. Ed is exhibiting;

a overextension.
b underextension.
c generalization.
d categorizing behavior.

17. According to Chomsky:

a the inability of some children to learn language is due to brain dysfunction.
b children have an innate ability to learn language.
c children learn language though imitation & reinforcement.
d Language learning depends on specific brain structures.

18. In general terms, the Gibsonsí concept of affordances emphasizes the idea that the individual perceives an object in terms of its:

a physical qualities.
b economic importance.
c role in the larger culture.
d function or use to the individual.

19. A single word used by toddlers to express a complete thought is:

a babbling.
b baby talk.
c a holophrase.
d an affordance.

20.  A toddler who taps on a computer keyboard after observing her dad sending E-mail is demonstrating

•  assimilation.
 •  accommodation.
  •  deferred imitation.
   •  dynamic perception.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

21.  Child-directed speech is the name given to the high-pitched, simplified, & repetitive way adults speak to infants. Child-directed speech is a.k.a.

•  babbling.
 •  toddler speak.
  •  private speech.
   •  motherese or baby talk.

22.  Parents & Educators should be guided in their approach to language learning by which of the following theories?

•  behaviorism - infants are directly taught
 •  epigenetic - infants naturally understand language
  •  social cultural - social impulses propel infants to communicate
   •  A hybrid theory using aspects of all of the above (emergentist coalition).

Growth & Development
Robert C. Gates
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.  -- Freud

    Just as a cautious businessman avoids investing all his capital in one concern, so wisdom would probably admonish us also not to anticipate all our happiness from one quarter alone.
- Sigmund Freud