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Ψ  Introduction
- Approaches to Psychology -

Ψ  Definition of Psychology - The science of the human soul; specifically, the systematic or scientific knowledge of the powers & functions of the human soul, so far as they are known by consciousness; a treatise on the human soul.

Ψ  Definition of Psychology - The systematic, scientific study of behaviors & mental processes.

New Goals of Psychology New

- Describe - Explain - Predict - Control -

Modern Approaches

Ψ  Biological approach - Examines how our genes, hormones, & nervous system interact with our environment.

Ψ  Cognitive approach - Focuses on how we process, store,& use information.

Ψ  Behavioral approach - Analysis of how learning occurs based upon reward & punishment.
    Subsets: B. F. Skinner (strict behaviorism)
                      Albert Bandura (adds social cognition)

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

Ψ  Psychoanalytic approach - Based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the development of later personality traits & psychological problems. From Sigmund Freud's work.

Ψ  Humanistic approach - emphasizes individual freedom in directing a one's future. Developed in part as a result of Abraham Maslow's dissatisfaction with psychoanalysis & behaviorism

Ψ  Cross-cultural approach - Studies the influence of cultural & ethnic similarities & differences.

Ψ  Evolutionary approach - Studies how evolutionary ideas, such as adaptation & natural selection, explain behaviors & mental processes.

   Note:  By combining information from all the approaches psychologists stand a better chance of reaching their four goals of describing, explaining, predicting & controlling behavior. (An eclectic approach works best.)

General Psychology
Robert C. Gates