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Ψ  Intelligence
- Theories -

     Intelligence - the ability to comprehend; to understand & profit from experience.


Ψ  Spearman's two-factor theory of intelligence
     g - general mental ability factor.
     s - specific mental factors such as mathematical, mechanical, & verbal.

Ψ  Charles Spearman (1927) analyzed the relations among experimental intelligence tests using 'factor analysis'. He argued that, as a rule, people who do well on some intelligence tests also do well on a variety of intellectual tasks [vocabulary and mathematical and spatial abilities]. And if people did poorly on an intelligence test, then they also tended to do poorly on other intellectual tests. That is, he observed correlations among performance on a variety of intellectual tasks.
     Thus, he proposed, a 'two-factor' theory of intelligence:
 1. General Ability (g): which was required for performance of mental tests of all kinds; he called this a kind of 'mental energy' that underlies the specific factors
 2. Special Abilities (s) which were required for performance on just one kind of mental test.
      - e.g. Scores on a verbal comprehension test are largely determined by one’s level of general intelligence but they are also affected by one’s specific ability to perform verbal comprehension tasks.


Ψ  Robert Sternberg (1949 - ) "I define [intelligence] as your skill in achieving whatever it is you want to attain in your life within your sociocultural context by capitalizing on your strengths and compensating for, or correcting, your weaknesses ( personal communication, July 29, 2004)."

Ψ  Robert Sternberg's triarchic  theory (3 factors)
     1.  analytical - logical - academic
          2.  creative - problem-solving
               3.  practical

Ψ  Sternberg (1986) believes that conventional intelligence tests tell us little about performance in everyday life & suggests a number of reasons why so-called intelligent people fail. They follow:

•  lack of motivation
 •  lack of impulse control
  •  lack of perseverance
   •  fear of failure
    •  procrastination
     •  inability to delay gratification
      •  too little or too much self-confidence

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

Ψ  Sternberg suggests that if intelligence is properly defined & measured it must  translate into real-life success.


Ψ  Howard Gardner's original multiple-intelligence  theory (1983)  proposed 7 factors.
     1. Linguistic
      2. Logical-Mathematical
       3. Musical
        4. Spatial
         5. Body-Kinesthetic
          6. Interpersonal (social-understanding)
           7. Intrapersonal (self-understanding)
Ψ  In his book "Intelligence Reframed (1999)" Gardner proposed three more areas of intelligence:
             8. Naturalistic ( knowledge of the living world )
              9. Spiritual ( an understanding of our relationship to the supernatural )
               10. Existential ( a concern with "ultimate" issues - a knowledge of our place in
                      the cosmos )

General Psychology
Robert C. Gates