rcg rcg rcg rcg rcg rcg rcg Nothing in life is more remarkable than the unnecessary anxiety which we endure and generally occasion ourselves. -- Beaconsfield.


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Ψ  Mood Disorders & Schizophrenia
- Mood Disorders -

    Ψ  Mood disorders are prolonged & disturbed emotional state that affects almost all of a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

Three common mood disorders

1. Major depression disorder is marked by at least two weeks of continually being in a bad mood, having no interest in anything, and getting no pleasure from activities. in addition, a person must have at least four of the following symptoms; problems with eating, sleeping, thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, lacking energy, thinking about suicide, feeling worthless or guilty.
2. Bipolar I disorder is marked by fluctuations between episodes of depression and mania. A manic episode goes on for at least a week during which a person is unusually euphoric, cheerful, and high and also has three of the following symptoms: great self esteem, has little need for sleep, speaks rapidly and frequently, has racing thoughts, is easily distracted, and pursues pleasurable activities.
3. Dysthymic disorder is characterized by being chronically but not continually depressed for a period of two years. While depressed, a person experiences at least two of the following: poor appetite, insomnia, fatigue, low self-esteem, poor concentration, feelings of hopelessness.

Causes of mood disorders

1. Biological factors underlying depression include genetic, neurological, chemical, and physiological components that may predispose or put someone at risk for developing a mood disorder.
2. Psychosocial factors underlying depression include personality traits, cognitive styles, social supports, and the ability to deal with stressors, that interact with predisposing biological factors to put one at risk for developing mood disorders

Treatment of mood disorders

•  For major depression & dysthymic disorder
    Ψ  antidepressant drugs act by increasing the levels of a specific group of neurotransmitters (monoamines-serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) that are involved in the regulation of emotions and moods.
    Ψ  psychotherapy
•  For Bipolar I disorder
    Ψ  past drug of choice was lithium (mood stabilizer)
    Ψ  antipsychotics & antidepressants are often combined with lithium
•  For Mania - lithium

Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Ψ  In 30% of depressions antidepressant drugs fail, the only other available treatment
is ECT.

    Ψ  Electroconvulsive therapy or ECT involves placing electrodes on the skull and administering a mild electric current that passes through the brain and causes a seizure.

    Ψ  Treatment consists of 10 to 12 sessions at about three per week.

    Ψ  A serious side effect of ECT is memory loss.

General Psychology
Robert C. Gates