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Ψ  The Nervous System
- Genes & Brain Evolution -

Ψ  Notes on genetic instructions

Fertilization - Process of conception in which the sperm penetrates the egg (ovum).
Zygote - the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon.
Chromosome - A structure in a cell nucleus that consists of genes. In humans, 23 pairs of chromosomes, each pair containing one chromosome from each parent, carry the entire genetic code.
DNA is a double-stranded molecule that encodes genetic information.
Genes - A gene is a segment of DNA found on a chromosome that codes for a particular protein; a unit of heredity; "genes were formerly called factors".
Human Genome Project - Collective name for several projects begun in 1986 to determine the entire nucleotide sequence of the human chromosomes.
    Fragile X syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, autistic-like behavior & other physical abnormalities. Though it is usually most severe/more common in males (they are more susceptible because they have only one X chromosome whereas females have two), both males & females can be affected & their karyotype shows a gap (the fragile site) on the long arm of the X chromosome. The most common form of inherited mental retardation.

Ψ  Evolution of The Human Brain

•  The theory of evolution is a scientific theory of the origin of species of plants & animals. Darwinism is a theory of organic evolution claiming that new species arise & are perpetuated by natural selection.
•  Increases in brain size from early primates to man are well documented.

Ψ  Studying the Living Brain

•  MRI & fMRI brain scans (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) the f stands
     for functional in fMRI.
•  PET brain scans (Positron Emission Tomography)
•  Picturing thoughts is called cognitive neuroscience.

General Psychology
Robert C. Gates