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Ψ  Rules of Organization

     Gestalt psychologists believe that perception is governed by rules which allow the whole to be seen (the rules are self-evident by observation). The Gestalt psychologists won the debate with Structuralists who felt all the basic elements need to be assembled for perception to take place.
     Gestalt - a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts.

     Perceptual Rules of Organization

    Ψ  Figure-ground rule - the figure with more detail stands out
      Ψ  Similarity rule - similar objects are grouped together
        Ψ  Closure rule - missing parts are filled in
          Ψ  Proximity rule - if they are close they are grouped together
            Ψ  Simplicity rule - organized as simply as possible
              Ψ  Continuity rule - smooth paths

General Psychology
Robert C. Gates