Knowledge will not be acquired without pains and application. It is troublesome and deep digging for pure waters; but when once you come to the spring, they rise up and meet you. -- Felton.


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Self Test Self Test for Self-Serving Bias & The Power of Positive Thinking

Ψ  Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on modules 4 & 5. The questions are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam one. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

    Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you are right.

1.  The sense that one is competent to do something constitutes one’s

•  self-esteem.
 •  self-efficacy.
  •  independent self.
   •  learned helpfulness.

1b.  Which of the following strategies is a defense against unrealistic optimism?

•  strategic optimism.
 •  defensive pessimism.
  •  advanced education.
   •  self-protective bias.

2. The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is

•  self-efficacy.
 •  self-serving bias.
  •  locus of control.
   •  the self-reference effect.

3. For qualities that are both subjective & socially desirable, most people consider themselves to be

a about average.
b better than average.
c worse than average.
d too unique for comparison.

4. Self-serving bias is strongest for qualities that are

a unique.
b objective.
c subjective.
d unambiguous.

5. People would be least likely to rate themselves as better than average in

a being ethical.
b being punctual.
c being disciplined.
d being high in interpersonal relationship skills.

6. The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions & undesirable behaviors is known as the

a self-reference effect.
b false consensus effect.
c false uniqueness effect.
d self-handicapping syndrome.

7. The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities & desirable behaviors is known as

a self-reference effect.
b false consensus effect.
c false uniqueness effect.
d self-handicapping syndrome.

8. In experiments, people whose self-esteem is temporarily bruised are more likely to

a act altruistically.
b disparage others.
c retreat into social isolation.
d seek to develop an interdependent self.

9. Which of the following is true of self-serving bias?

a It can protect people from depression.
b It can lead to more accurate self-appraisals.
c It can make people more vulnerable to depression.
d It is necessary for long term mental health.

10. Which theory argues that positive self-esteem may be adaptive because it buffers us from anxiety related to our own mortality?

a mortality salience theory.
b self-serving bias theory.
c terror management theory.
d self-esteem maintenance theory.

11. True humility is more like _____ than false modesty.

a self-denial
b self-contempt
c self-forgetfulness
d self-handicapping

12. When groups are comparable, most people consider their own group to be

a below average.
b about average.
c above average.
d unclassifiable.

13. A person’s overall sense of self-worth constitutes his or her

a self-esteem.
b self-efficacy.
c possible self.
d self-awareness.

14.  People with strong feelings of self-efficacy are likely to be more

•  anxious.
 •  persistent.
  •  socially sensitive.
   •  prone to stress.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

15. The extent to which people perceive their lives as internally controllable by their own efforts & actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces constitutes their

a locus of control.
b controllability quotient.
c intrinsic-extrinsic motivation.
d interdependent-independent self.

16. The experience of repeated uncontrollable bad events contributes to

a self-efficacy.
b learned helplessness.
c an interdependent self.
d an internal locus of control.

17. Individualistic cultures marked by __________ tend to cause decreased life satisfaction & increased clinical depression.

a high self-efficacy
b “an excess of freedom”
c low learned helplessness
d primarily external locus of control

18. Bandura emphasizes that self-efficacy improves as a result of

a self-persuasion.
b the experience of success.
c the compliments of others.
d the power of positive thinking.

19. People express greater satisfaction with their decisions when their choices are ________.

a reversible.
b irrevocable.
c emotional.
d moral.

20. A classic study found that people living in trailers in Alabama were more likely to die from tornadoes than people living in trailers in far more tornado-prone areas. Researchers found that the difference between that group of Alabamans and their counterparts in other states was that people in the tornado-prone states actively prepared for the likelihood of tornadoes (e.g., they purchased weather radios). The passivity of the Alabamans in this study represents an

a Internal locus of control.
b external locus of control.
c ambiguous locus of control.
d interdependent locus of control.

21.  Because she gets poor grades no matter how hard she studies, Rose has decided not to study at all. This behavior most clearly demonstrates

a self-monitoring.
b learned helplessness.
c an interdependent self.
d an internal locus of control.

22.  Bandura believes that self-efficacy develops primarily through

•  self-persuasion.
 •  experiencing success.
  •  being exposed to self-efficacious models.
   •  the process of escape and avoidance conditioning.

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Social Psychology
Robert C. Gates
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.  -- Freud