Knowledge will not be acquired without pains and application. It is troublesome and deep digging for pure waters; but when once you come to the spring, they rise up and meet you. -- Felton.


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Self Test Self Test for
Social Psychology in the Clinic 

Ψ  Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Chapter 14. The questions are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam one. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

    Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you are right.

1. According to research evidence, professional clinicians

•  rarely overestimate the predictive powers of their clinical intuition.
 •  rarely fall into the trap of self-confirming diagnoses.
  •  are frequently the victims of illusory correlation.
   •  are not fooled by hindsight analysis.

2. Professional clinical judgment is particularly vulnerable to

a illusory correlations.
b self-confirming diagnosis.
c overconfidence bred by hindsight.
d all of these are vulnerabilities.

3. Following the suicide of someone we care about, feelings of guilt are often magnified by

a hindsight bias.
b illusory thinking.
c confirmation bias.
d the fundamental attribution error.

4. Researchers found that interviewers often test for a trait by

a asking those being tested for a general self-evaluation.
b looking for information that will contradict it.
c looking for information that will confirm it.
d doing all of the above.

5. Research suggests that the prediction of someone’s future academic success is best when the prediction is based on

a statistics.
b letters of recommendation.
c the judgments of trained admissions officers.
d statistics plus the judgments of trained admissions officers.

6. Robyn Dawes suggests that clinicians & interviewers express more confidence in their intuitive assessments than in statistical data because of

a cognitive conceit.
b the fundamental attribution error.
c unreliability in statistical predictions.
d the lack of validity in standardized tests.

7. An important implication of the research on illusory thinking is that

a conventional wisdom is almost always wrong.
b intuition really has no legitimate place in doing science.
c research psychologists must test their preconceptions before presenting them as truth.
d the scientific method is the only legitimate way to answer significant human questions.

8. Clinical intuition as a diagnostic & predictive tool is often

a ignored.
b overestimated.
c underestimated.
d equated to science.

9. Science always involves an interplay between ________ & rigorous test.

a intuition.
b skepticism.
c agnosticism.
d the scientific method.

10.  Which bias occurs when we selectively notice or focus upon evidence which tends to support the things we already believe or want to be true while ignoring that evidence which would serve to disconfirm those beliefs or ideas? This bias plays a stronger role when it comes to those beliefs which are based upon prejudice, faith, or tradition rather than on empirical evidence.”

•  hindsight bias
 •  self-serving bias
  •  confirmation bias
   •  fundamental attribution bias

11. Clinical judgments can also be considered

a illusory.
b peripheral.
c social judgments
d wrong judgments

12. When a "patient" presents with depression, powerlessness, shame, & feelings of unworthiness some therapists argue that "people who have been abused have those symptoms, so you were probably abused.* This

a is insightful.
b illustrates hindsight bias.
c is motivated by illusory correlations.
d is motivated by conformation-seeking bias.

13. Which of the following is not a problem for clinicians?

a Hindsight bias
b Illusory correlations
c Self-confirming bias
d Underestimating their intuition

14. Self-Confirming Diagnoses are a. k. a.

•  Conformation Bias.
 •  Confirmation Bias.
  •  Conformation Bias &/or Confirmation Bias
   •  Hindsight Bias

Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.  -- Freud

15. The tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgments is referred to as

•  the Barnum effect.
 •  depressive realism.
  •  realistic pessimism.
   •  accurate explanatory style.

16.  “Explanatory style” refers to

•  one’s habitual way of explaining life events.
 •  the complexity of one’s persuasive arguments.
  •  the pitch and speed with which one communicates.
   •  whether one uses reason or emotion in debating an issue.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

17.  Which type of explanatory style is used when explaining life events in terms of factors that are stable, global, & internal?

•  positive
 •  realistic
  •  negative
   •  repressive

18. Compared to depressed people, normal people

a exaggerate their control of events around them.
b readily accept responsibility for both success & failure.
c have realistic perceptions of the good & bad things the future holds.
d describe themselves with a fairly even mix of positive & negative qualities.

19. Which of the following attributions regarding a failure or a setback illustrates the global quality of a depressed person’s explanatory style?

a “It’s all my fault.”
b “It’s going to last forever.”
c “The whole world is against me.”
d “It’s going to affect everything I do.”

20. Which of the following best illustrates an internal attribution for a failure or setback?

a “It’s all my fault.”
b “I’ll never succeed.”
c “This ruins everything.”
d “The whole world is against me.”

21. In those vulnerable to depression, negative experiences first cause

a a depressed mood.
b further negative experiences.
c self-focused & self-blaming thoughts.
d blaming others for the negative experience.

22. According to self-presentation theory, we will feel social anxiety when we are

a depressed.
b in any situation in which we can be observed.
c motivated & able to impress others, but they ignore us.
d motivated to impress others but doubt our ability to do so.

23. Labeling oneself as shy, depressed, or under the influence of alcohol can serve what function?

a anger-reducing
b self-handicapping
c group-identification
d concurrence-seeking

24. Both assertiveness training & rational-emotive therapy are examples of psychotherapeutic techniques that

a encourage changes in explanatory style.
b utilize social support to change behavior.
c use counter conditioning strategies.
d utilize the attitudes-follow-behavior principle.

25. The vicious cycles that maintain depression, loneliness, & shyness can be broken by

a positive experiences that alter self-perceptions.
b training in more effective social skills.
c changing negative thought patterns.
d all of the above.

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Social Psychology
Robert C. Gates
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.  -- Freud

New  Civilization began the first time an angry person cast a word instead of a rock.

- Sigmund Freud