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Links:      •  Self Test
                •  Print Ready Version
                 •  Chapter Index

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decorative star graphic  The Play Years
Psychosocial Development
- The Self & the Social World -

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Ψ  Initiative vs. Guilt - Erik Erikson, The third of the eight crises of psychosocial development, in which the preschool child eagerly begins new projects & activities.

  • when successful the child exhibits a positive self image
  • feels guilt when his or her efforts result in failure or criticism

Self-Concept & Social Awareness

  • A child's ability to compromise gradually evolves.
  • Older children do feel older, stronger, & more skilled than younger children, they become aware.

Ψ  Emotional Regulation is the ability to direct or modify one’s feelings, particularly feelings of fear, frustration & anger.

Ψ  Because of brain maturation, emotional regulation becomes more possible during preschool years.

Ψ  Learning is crucial to emotional regulation!

  • Caregivers guide children in the appropriate expression of emotion, teaching children to moderate anger or other negative emotions.
  • learning can be negative, producing a phobia which is an irrational fear that is strong enough to make a person try to avoid the feared object or experience

Ψ  Attachment & Emotional Regulation notes:
  • Secure attachment - These children tend to react to other children’s emotions positively.
  • Insecure attachment - Children who fail to develop secure attachment, can be excessively friendly at age 4 or 5.

Human Growth & Development
Robert C. Gates
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