Ψ Adolescence is often a time when the values and behaviors of young people are said to become increasingly distant and detached from those of their parents and other adults.
Ψ Generation Gap: The distance between generations in values, behaviors, and knowledge. The gap is typically small by objective measures.
Ψ Generational Stake: The need of each generation to view family interactions from its own perspective, because each has a different investment in the family scenario.
Ψ Adolescents have a stake in believing that their parents are limited, old-fashioned, and out of touch. This divergence happens with good reason, adolescents do need to break free from their parents to find their own way.
Parent- Adolescent Conflict
Ψ Usually occurs when a young persons drive for independence clashes with the parents’ traditions of control. Typically emerges in early adolescence particularly with daughters and mothers.
Ψ Bickering: repeated petty, peevish arguing, more like nagging than fighting.
Other Family Qualities
Ψ Conflict is only one aspect of parent-teen relationships, Other aspects include
- Control: Parental Monitoring: - Parental awareness of what one’s children are doing, where and with whom. - Too much parental interference & control can be a strong predictor of adolescent depression. - Do parents encourage or limit autonomy?
- Support - do they rely on each other?
- Communication - can they talk openly with each other?
- Connectiveness - How close are they?
Ψ Relations with peers are vital to the transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents help each other "grow up" in many ways.
Ψ Brown (1990) identified four special, constructive functions performed by peer relationships. They follow.
- Pubertal self-help - re. physical changes
- Social support - protection against turmoil
- Identity formation - mirror
- Values clarification - sounding board
Ψ Contrary to Brown's four constructive functions is the notion of Peer Pressure. Peer Pressure is the social pressure to conform with one’s friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude; usually considered negative, as when adolescent peers encourage each other to defy adult standards.
Ψ The idea of peer pressure is exaggerated in three ways:
- Peer-group pressure is not strong forever, but only for a few years ( to 14).
- Peer-group conformity is not always destructive it can be constructive.
- Peer standards are not necessary negative they can be positive.
Ψ Conflict between peers & family is likely to arise in ethnic groups that revere closeness to family, respect for others, and self-sacrifice. These ideals clash with peer group emphasis on adolescent freedom & self-determination. It is not surprising that minority individuals often have trouble establishing
Ψ Boys & Girls will act on their attraction to each other and come together. These romantic relationships augment rather than replace same-sex friendships.