my view decorative banner decorative psi symbol


decorative star graphic

Top of Page


Links:      •  Self Test
                •  Print Ready Version
                 •  Chapter Index

decorative graphic

decorative star graphic  Middle Adulthood:
Cognitive Development
- Selective Gains & Losses -

decorative graphic

Ψ  When people devise alternate strategies to compensate for age related declines in ability its called selective optimization with compensation.

    When we age it is thought that we develop special competencies, or expertise, in activities that are important to us.

    There are differences between experts & novices. Novices tend to rely more on formal procedures & rules to guide them, whereas experts rely more on their experience & the immediate context. This makes the actions of experts more intuitive & less stereotypic.

    Experts practice, usually at least 10 years. This illustrates the importance of motivation in the development of expertise.

    The benefits of expertise are quite specific; however, practice & specialization cannot always overcome the effects of age.

    The cognitive appraisal of an event is critical in determining whether or not that event becomes a stressor.

    In problem focused coping, people try to cope by facing the problem directly. In emotion focused coping, people cope with stress by trying to change their emotions. Younger adults are more likely to attack a problem & older adults are more likely to accept it.

Growth & Development
Robert C. Gates
decorative psi symbol