Top of Page


Links:      •  Self Test
                •  Print Ready Version
                 •  Module Index

 Cognitive Development
- Language -


  •  Cooing
   •  Continual awareness of sound (turns to sound, stops crying when spoken to);
    •  Uses eye gaze to indicate interest.
     •  Babbling - at 6-7 months. When babies begin to repeat certain syllables : baba...

7-12 MONTHS:

  • First words appear (they are often people, or nouns);
  • Same syllable is repeated (mama, dada);
  • Child demonstrates increased understanding of daily routines.


  • Child says 3-5 words;
  • Child recognizes his/her name;
  • Understands simple instructions;
  • Initiates familiar words, gestures, and sounds;
  • Child understands common objects and actions (e.g., cookie, eat, juice).


   •  Naming Explosion: Child uses about 10-20 words including names
    •  Recognition of pictures of familiar persons, objects'
     •  Early 2-word combinations of words emerge;
      •  Needs are requested verbally such as "more, up";
       •  Child will point, gesture, follow simple commands, imitate simple actions,
           hums or sings;
         •  Distinguishes print from non print.

   •  A child's first words are produced at approximately 14 to 20 months of age. It is common at this early stage to leave off consonants or consonant clusters from the beginning or end of a word. Sometimes a single word may represent an entire thought. "Boo" may mean "read to me." This is called a holophrase.

24 months (2 years.):

  • Half the child's utterances to 2 or more words long;
  • Child understands simple questions and commands;
  • Vocabulary jumps to 300 words during the year!
  • Identifies familiar actions/activities in pictures (i.e. "sleeping, eating");
  • Follows directions to put objects "on, off, in";
  • Puts two words together on average;
  • Sentence length of up to three words;
  • Child will refer to self by name;
  • Labels pictures;
  • Start to use the negative "not go";
  • Final "s" is used for plurals;
  • Children will stay with one activity about 6-7 minutes.

Common Inaccuracies

  • Underextension - the only dog in the world is mine
  • Overextension - all animals are dogs

Growth & Development
Robert C. Gates