Ψ It is traditional to assume that personality is molded through the actions of parents (especially
the mother); by establishing patterns of reinforcement (behaviorism-Learning Theory) or by
establishing particular modes of sensual satisfaction (Psychoanalytic - Freud).
Ψ For Erikson, the first years of life present two psychosocial crises for the child to resolve:
• Trust vs. Mistrust - Hope is the virtue that develops upon successful resolution of this stage.
• Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt - Will (Determination) is the virtue that develops upon successful resolution of this stage.
• How this is handled will leave a legacy that will influence later development.
Link to All of Erikson's stages
Ψ Research has shown that the parents' overall pattern of warmth and sensitivity is more important to the child's psychosocial development than the particulars of feeding, weaning and toilet training.
Ψ These traditional psychological theories maintain that personality is shaped by early nurture.