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  The First Two Years:
Psychosocial Development
- Becoming Social Partners -

Growth & Development


   Ψ  Synchrony – is the coordinated interaction between infant and parent in which each individual responds to and influences the other.

   •  Synchrony may be impaired if:

   Ψ  The caregiver ignores the infant’s invitation to interact.
   Ψ  The caregiver over stimulates a baby who wants to pause and rest.

   Ψ A new connection between parent & child replaces early synchrony toward the end of the 1st year of life. This new emotional bond is called attachment.

Cross-cultural Variation

   Ψ  It appears that synchrony (achieved through face-to-face play) is a universal experience, However frequency & durations do have wide variations.

  • North American mothers direct their infant's attention away from the relationship.
  • Japanese mothers focus on mutual intimacy.
  • Vietnamese mothers restrict their infants' exploratory activities.
  • Haitian mothers encourage social interaction.

Growth & Development
Robert C. Gates