Ψ Attachment– an enduring emotional connection between people that produces a desire for continual contact as well as feelings of distress during separation. Used to describe the relationship between parents and older infants.
Secure vs. Insecure Attachment
Ψ Secure attachment – a caregiver-infant relationship that provides comfort and confidence. This is evidenced first by the infant’s attempts to be close to the caregiver & then by the infant’s readiness to explore.
Ψ The caregiver’s role in a relationship of secure attachment is to act as a base for exploration to which the child freely ventures forth & returns.
Ψ Insecure Attachment – a caregiver-infant relationship characterized by the child’s overdependence on, or lack of interest in, the caregiver. Characterized by a lack of confidence on the part of the child.
Ψ Strange Situation – an experimental condition in which the infant’s behavior is observed in an unfamiliar room while the caregiver (mother) and a stranger move in and out of the room.
Types of Attachment
Type B: Secure Attachment (55-65%)
Benefits of Secure Attachment: aids both cognitive and social development. Securely attached infants are more curious, outgoing, and self-directed.
Type A: Insecure-avoidant (15-25%) - Characteristics: minimally interested in the caregiver, explores busily, shows minimal distress at separation, ignores or avoids caregiver on reunion.
Type C: Insecure-resistant (10-15%) - Characteristics: preoccupied with caregiver, has difficulty settling down, both seeks & resists contact on reunion, may be angry or very passive.
Type D: Insecure-disorganized (10-20%)
Remember: Attachment is more influenced by the child's temperament than by the caregiver.
Attachment for Adults - four categories:
Growth & Development|
Robert C. Gates