Memory feeds imagination. Amy Tan (1952 - ) he memory should be specially taxed in youth, since it is then that it is strongest and most tenacious. But in choosing the things that should be committed to memory the utmost care and forethought must be exercised; as lessons well learnt in youth are never forgotten. 
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860)


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Ψ  Self Test for Types of Memory

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 11 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam three. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test.

1. The three processes of memory are:

a attention, encode, feedback
b encode, retrieve, motivate
c encode, imitate, retrieve
d encode, store, retrieve

2. The correct order for the three kinds of memory is:

a sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
b short-term memory, episodic memory, sensory memory
c long-term memory, iconic memory, echoic memory
d semantic, echoic memory, episodic memory

3. Which kind of memory holds seven or eight items of information for several seconds?

a echoic memory
b sensory memory
c long-term memory
d short-term memory

4. The function of sensory memory is to:

a weed out what is irrelevant in incoming information
b hold information in its raw form for a brief period of time
c burn sensations into long-term memory for later retrieval and inspection
d make quick associations between new data and things you already know

5. What is a good & accurate way to remember what iconic memory refers to?

a Iconic memory is visual information in short-term memory.
b Icon means image and therefore iconic memory refers to visual information.
c Icon means sound & therefore iconic memory refers to auditory information.
d "Con" in iconic refers to something false or bogus & therefore iconic memory refers to a false memory.

6. Iconic is to echoic as _______ is to _______.

a visual; auditory
b general; specific
c graphical; visual
d long duration; short duration

7. If you do not attend to information in sensory memory, what will happen to the information?

a The information will be forgotten.
b The information will be transferred into secondary memory.
c The information will be transferred into short-term memory.
d The information will be forgotten for one to three seconds, but then later encoded into short-term memory.

8. Of the following, which is not a function of sensory memory?

a gives decision time
b prevents being overwhelmed
c allows for rehearsal of information
d provides stability, playback, & recognition

9. Which of the following pairs accurately describes the two central characteristics of short-term memory?

a unlimited duration, unlimited capacity
b limited duration, unlimited capacity
c unlimited duration, limited capacity
d limited duration, limited capacity

10. Repeating information over and over so that it does not fade from short-term memory is called ________ rehearsal.

a elaborative
b episodic
c maintenance
d intentional

11. Why doesn’t information in short-term memory simply become permanent? Probably because of:

a limited storage space in the brain
b fascination with the new and different
c interference caused by newly arriving information
d incompatibility with previously processed information

12. If you combine separate items of information into large units and then remember these larger units rather than individual items, you are using:

a attention
b chunking
c rehearsal
d procedural memory

13. Short-term memory performs three functions. Which of the following is not among the three functions?

a provides a location for network nodes
b selectively attends to information that is relevant
c holds information for a short period of time
d promotes storage (through rehearsing) in long-term memory

14. Unlike that of short-term memory, the capacity of long-term memory:

a is almost unlimited
b depends on cell development in the frontal lobe
c varies tremendously from one person to the next
d is six to seven items that can be consciously recalled

15. The ability to recall items at the beginning of a list more easily than following items is the result of the ____ effect.

a attentional
b recency
c primacy
d ordering

16. The recency effect works because subjects:

a cannot transfer information into sensory memory
b still have the last items available in short-term memory
c rehearsed the last items storing them in long-term memory
d do not have enough long-term memory for all of the items

17. We can retrieve ______ memory, but not ______ memory.

a semantic; episodic
b episodic; semantic
c procedural; semantic
d semantic; procedural

18. Two types of declarative memory are

a procedural & episodic
b semantic & procedural
c semantic & episodic
d semantic & motor

19. __________ memory is the aspect of memory that stores facts & events. It applies to standard textbook learning & knowledge. It is based on pairing the stimulus & the correct response.

a nondeclarative
b procedural
c declarative
d episodic

20. Actively making meaningful connections between the information you are learning with information you already know is called:

a sensory encoding
b automatic encoding
c elaborative rehearsal
d maintenance rehearsal

21. Photographic is to eidetic (eye-DET-ick) as ______ is to ______.

a film; flashbulb
b adult; child
c short-term; long-term
d intellect; emotion

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General Psychology
Robert C. Gates
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