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Ψ  Self Test for Thought & Language

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 14 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam four. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test.

1. The areas of thinking & language are important topics to study in the ________ approach.

a cognitive
b behavioral
c humanistic
d psychoanalytic

2. A way we group objects and events based on some shared characteristics is called a _______.

a concept
b heuristic
c cognition
d algorithm

3. According to the exemplar theory of concept formation, we list all of the essential properties that define an object, event, or characteristic. When we encounter an event and need to conceptualize it, we proceed to:

a use heuristics
b use algorithms
c compare the selected concept to the prototype
d find the concept that fits all of the essential properties of that event

4. A mental image that is based on the average characteristics of an object is called a(n):

a heuristic
b exemplar
c prototype
d algorithm

5. Exemplar theory is to ______ as prototype theory is to _______.

a primary; secondary
b biological; psychological
c deep characteristics; surface characteristics
d essential characteristics; average characteristics

6. Research has found that the processes of forming prototypes and matching things to prototypes:

a go on at a conscious level
b go on at an unconscious level
c are influenced by grades in school
d are influenced by the proficiency of one’s memory system

7. In problem solving, there are three states. Which of the following is not among the three states?

a goal state
b initial state
c operations state
d preparation state

8. Rules which will lead to a solution if followed correctly are called:

a algorithms
b brainstorming
c availability heuristics
d representative heuristics

9. Algorithm is to ________ as heuristic is to _______.

a general; specific
b language; thinking
c rule; mental shortcut
d short; long

10. The inability to see new uses for old objects is called:

a interference
b braindrumming
c divergent thinking
d functional fixedness

11. A person who solves problems by finding a similarity between a new situation and an old situation is utilizing:

a insight
b an analogy
c deep structure
d transformational rules

12. Which is not an approach to measuring creativity?

a cognitive
b linguistic
c case study
d psychometric

13. When you begin with a problem & devise many solutions, it is called __________, but if you come up with the one correct solution, it is called __________.

a analogy; brainstorming
b semantics; insight
c divergent thinking; convergent thinking
d phonology; morphology

14. What term is given to those 10% of autistic persons who shows some incredible memory, music, or drawing talent?

a gifted
b savant
c genius
d creative

15. From most particular to most general in the rules of language, the correct order is:

a morpheme, phoneme, syntax, semantics
b syntax, phoneme, semantics, morpheme
c phoneme, morpheme, syntax, semantics
d semantics, syntax, morpheme, phoneme

16. In the word “sock”, the sound of the “s” is a(n) _________, whereas the use of the “s” to make the word plural is a(n) _____________.

a syntax; semantic
b phoneme; morpheme
c concept; unit of grammar
d overgeneralization; transformational rule

17. A “morpheme” is defined as a:

a pronunciation that is not phonetic
b smallest meaningful combination of sounds in a language
c new word that is formed by combining two existing words
d child’s common mispronunciation of a word that is not phonetic

18. Which of the following words consists of a single morpheme?

a books
b computer
c unspeakable
d uncomfortable

19. According to Noam Chomsky, language operates at two levels:

a sentences & telegraphic speech
b spoken words and censored words
c surface structure and deep structure
d obvious meaning and implied meaning

20. The underlying meaning of a sentence is its:

a phonology
b deep structure
c surface structure
d transformational grammar

21. Which is the correct sequence of stages in children’s acquisition of language?

a crying, begging, asking, reasoning
b babbling, one-word, two-word, three-word, four-word, etc.
c babbling, single word, two-word combinations, sentences
d senseless noises, listening, imitation, original productions

22. “Parentese (motherese),” which includes speaking in a higher voice and stretching out each word, usually emerges from parents in response to their child’s use of:

a words
b babbling
c overgeneralization
d rules of grammar

23. Telegraphic speech is characterized by:

a parentese
b one-syllable verbalization
c two-word combinations
d omission of articles, prepositions, and parts of verbs

24. The debate over how we acquire language concerns __________ versus __________.

a superficial / deep-seated
b individual / common to the group
c innate language abilities / environmental language factors
d universal abilities / different skills from one cultural group to another

25. When you use past observations in order to draw a broader conclusion, you are using:

a deductive reasoning
b inductive reasoning
c convergent thinking
d divergent thinking

26. Inductive reasoning consists of reasoning:

a to find one correct solution
b to find several correct solutions
c from the particular to the general
d from the general to the particular

27. The notion that language determines the way people think and perceive the world is characteristic of:

a overgeneralization
b the social learning approach
c the theory of linguistic relativity
d Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition

28. Which of the following is the correct order of steps in reading?

a phoneme producer, word analyzer, syntax detector
b phoneme producer, word analyzer, automatic detector
c morpheme producer, phoneme analyzer, word detector
d morpheme producer, automatic detector, word analyzer

29. Males and females use language differently. Males use language to _________ and females use it to __________.

a solve problems; share concerns
b direct others’ behavior; criticize
c criticize; maintain their independence
d share concerns; maintain their position in a group

30. There are four criteria for having real language. Which of the following is not one of the criteria?

a verbally expressed
b set of abstract symbols
c use of abstract symbols
d complex rules for expression
e generate an endless number of meaningful sentences

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General Psychology
Robert C. Gates
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.  -- Freud

New Before the phantom of False morning died,
Methought a Voice within the Tavern cried,
"When all the Temple is prepared within,
Why nods the drowsy Worshipper outside?"
New from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam