Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 19 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam five. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.
Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test.
1. What is defined as the combination of lasting & distinctive behaviors, thoughts, & emotions that typlify how we react and adapt to other people & situations?
2. Freudís psychodynamic approach to personality emphasizes which of the following?
self-actualization & personal freedom
cognitive appraisals of oneís environment
the measurement of traits &their stability
conscious thoughts, unconscious forces, & unconscious motivation
3. Free association, dream interpretation, & Freudian slips are:
techniques to discover the conscious
techniques to discover the unconscious
techniques to discover the extent of self-actualization
examples of how real self & ideal self conflict with each other
4. The three divisions of the mind according to Freudís theory are:
id, ego, and superego
inner, peripheral, and outer
id, regulator, and conscious
pleasurer, governor, and regulator
5. Id is to ego as:
need is to drive
self is to other
pleasure is to reality
trend is to desire
6. Which defense mechanism uses acceptable excuses for behaviors which cause us to feel anxiety?
7. Fixation occurs:
primarily in first-born children
in Freud's oral, anal, or phallic stages
primarily in males growing up in single-parent households
when the ego realizes the defense mechanism is having little effect
8. Which of the following is a major event that occurs during the phallic stage?
first crush on the opposite sex
development of the Oedipus complex
9. Who is not considered one of Freudís former followers?
10. Freudís ideas such as id, ego, superego, repression, and unconscious forces:
have been proved in several studies
were actually developed by Carl Jung
are very difficult to demonstrate experimentally or verify
are assumed to be incorrect by most psychoanalytical theorists
11. Cognitive neuroscientists have developed the concept of __________ to take the place of Freudís theory of repressed unconscious forces.
the collective unconscious
implicit or nondeclarative memory
the phenomenological perspective
12. Which approach to personality stresses the achievement of human potential and personal growth?
13. The phenomenological perspective proposes that:
our perceptions of the world become our reality
defense mechanisms are helpful in denying reality
reality is determined by our unconscious conflicts
we base our reality on what we observe in our environment
14. ďYou are who you are because of your motivation, faith, intelligence, optimism, cheerfulness.Ē This is a good example of:
locus of control
the holistic view
the reality principle
15. By self-actualization, Maslow meant:
fulfillment of our unique potential
having our deficiency needs satisfied
gaining recognition and status in society
being loved and loving someone in return
16. In Carl Rogersí humanistic theory, he emphasizes two assumptions. These assumptions are:
real self and ideal self
achievement and recognition
need for locus of control and conscious motivation
self-actualizing tendency and personal need for positive regard
17. According to Carl Rogers, contradictions between _______ and ______ may result in personality problems.
the real self; the ideal self
deficiency needs; growth needs
unconscious forces; conscious forces
internal locus of control; external locus of control
18. In what way do the humanistic theories of personality differ from almost every other theory?
People are motivated to get as much pleasure as they possibly can.
The humanistic theories believe that people are basically bad.
The humanistic theories believe that people are basically good.
The humanistic theories believe that people are governed by their unconscious mind.
19. Positive regard that is given because the person is valued as a human being is called:
conditional positive regard
unconditional positive regard
20. Rorshach is to TAT as _____ is to ______.
21. The humanistic viewpoint emphasizes
Natural selection & practical skills.
Free will, self-image, & self-actualization.
Determinism, the unconscious, & self-actualization.
The idea that "the environment is the key causal matrix."
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Robert C. Gates
Oh Thou, who Man of baser Earth didst make,
And ev'n with Paradise devise the Snake:
For all the Sin wherewith the Face of Man
Is blacken'd---Man's forgiveness give---and take!
from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam