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Ψ  Self Test for Social Cognitive & Trait Theories

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Module 20 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam five. You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

    Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you are right.

1.  Who you are is shaped by environmental conditions (learning), cognitive-personal factors, & behavior all interacting & influencing how information is processed & used.” What kind of theorist would be most likely to make that statement?

•  trait
 •  analytical
  •  humanistic
   •  social cognitive

2. Albert Bandura developed a theory by which personality development is influenced by four factors; highly developed language ability, observational learning, purposeful behavior, & self-analysis. His theory is called:

a trait theory
b self efficacy theory
c social cognitive theory
d self actualization theory

3. Bandura is to Skinner as __________ is to _________.

a elicited; emitted
b cognitive; behavioral
c voluntary; involuntary
d involuntary; voluntary

4. Our belief about how much control we have over situations or rewards is called:

a self-analysis
b self-efficacy
c locus of control
d purposeful behavior

5. Researchers have found correlations between locus of control & psychological functioning. Which of the following is an incorrect summary of the research?

a People with an internal locus of control report less stress
b People with an internal locus of control are generally more depressed
c People with an internal locus of control are generally higher achievers
d People with an internal locus of control are generally more likely to take preventive health measures

6. To postpone an immediate reward in favor of completing a task for a future reward is called:

a self-efficacy
b self-actualization
c postponement bias
d delay of gratification

7.  Our personal belief of how capable we are of exercising control over events in our lives is called

•  self-regard.
 •  self-esteem.
  •  self-efficacy.
   •  self-actualization.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

8. Which of the following does Bandura not include in the keys to determining our sense of self-efficacy?

a comparing ourselves to others
b what others say about our capabilities
c the power of our conscience to make us feel guilty
d successes and failures we have experienced in the past

9. Which of the following is not an assumption of the trait approach to personality?

a Differences between personalities can be described with the 5-factor model.
b Traits are relatively enduring and stable and influence a person’s behavior.
c An individual’s personality can be described completely by listing all traits.
d Personality is the result of unconscious forces that create conflict within the person.

10. Which of the following is not one of the five groups of traits in the five-factor model used to describe personality?

a neuroticism
b intelligence
c extraversion
d agreeableness
e conscientiousness
e openness

11. Who was it that constructed a list of traits that was considered too long & therefore impractical to use in research?

a Daryl Bem
b Gordon Allport
c Albert Bandura
d Raymond Cattell

12. To understand a person's behavior, the person's ____ and the ____ must be considered.

a traits; culture
b traits; situation
c history; situation
d intelligence; culture

13. If there is personality change after the age of 30, it generally is:

a due to stressors & challenges
b adoption of a totally new theme
c restricted to openness to new ideas
d only temporary and tied to the situation

14. The area of behavioral genetics suggest that genetic factors:

a are fixed
b set a range for behaviors
c do not interact with the environment
d account for more than 55% of the development of personality traits

15.  If intelligence has a heritability of .5 to .7, it means that

a 50 - 70% of IQ scores are explained by genetic factors.
b 50 - 70% of a person's IQ score is explained by genetic factors.
c .5 - .7% of a person's IQ score is explained by genetic factors.
d 5 - 7% of a person's IQ score is explained by genetic factors.

16.  The heritability of personality traits range from _____.

•  .05 - .1
 •  .41- .51
  •  .69 - .99
   •  1.56 - 2.90

     It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

17.  Two variables that have minimal  impact on personality development are

a shared environmental factors & genetics.
b parental practices & shared family experiences.
c genetics & non-shared environmental factors.
d economic status of family & gender of child.

18. Personality appears to be influenced by several factors. Of the following lists, which one correctly orders the factors contributing to personality (from most to least):

a error, genetic factors, nonshared environmental factors, shared
       environmental factors

b genetic factors, shared environmental factors, nonshared environmental
       factors, error

c shared environmental factors, genetic factors, nonshared environmental
       factors, error

d genetic factors, nonshared environmental factors, error, shared
       environmental factors

19.  Some people experience a very sudden (in a single day) and radical or dramatic shift in personality, beliefs, or values; psychology calls this a:

a quantum personality change
b born again spiritual experience
c quantitative personality change
d flash of insight, or “ah ha” experience

20.  Which of the following types of personality tests consists of ambiguous stimuli?

a projective
b objective
c behavioral
d traditional psychological interview

21.  According to Bandura, social cognitive theory (&/or reciprocal determinism) involves multidirectional influences among

•  id, ego, & superego.
 •  mind, body, & behavior.
  •  thoughts, emotions, & actions.
   •  learned helplessness, locus of control, & optimism.
    •  behaviors, internal personal factors, & environmental events.

22.  The social-cognitive perspective is least likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of

•  personality traits.
 •  genetic influences.
  •  unconscious motives.
   •  environmental influences.

23.  Linda was informed by a palm reader: “You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess.” The fact that Linda was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates

•  attributional style.
 •  the Barnum effect.
  •  the Electra complex.
   •  reciprocal determinism.
    •  unconditional positive regard.

24.  Which of the following is not a goal in the construction of trait theory?

•  To specify a set of independent central traits that do not correlate with each other.
 •  To explain the personality differences among individuals rather than merely describe them.
   •  To account for the greatest amount of meaningful psychological variation among individuals with a minimum number of central traits.
     •  To specify a manageable set of personality distinctions that can be used to summarize the fundamental psychological differences among individuals.

•  Link to the Print Friendly Version

General Psychology
Robert C. Gates

New Into this Universe, and Why not knowing,
Nor Whence, like Water willy-nilly flowing;
And out of it, as Wind along the Waste,
I know not Whither, willy-nilly blowing.
New from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam