Practice Test for
Theories of Development
7. The central dispute in the study of human development is
8. Parents that spend a lot of time structuring their child's environment
are emphasizing the
the zone of proximal development.
9. Classical conditioning is to _________ as operant conditioning is to _________.
10. One who takes an eclectic approach
does not use any of the theories of development.
uses parts of several theories to explain behavior.
feels social learning contributes the most to current behavior.
11. How do minitheories differ from grand theories of development?
12. Psychoanalytic theory views intrinsic drives & motives as the foundation for
all of the above.
13. Vygotsky's theory has been criticized for
failing to recognize how much children can learn when encouraged.
neglecting the biological processes.
overlooking how people learn from each other.
ignoring the dynamic interaction that occurs between people.
14. We are more likely to imitate the behavior of others if we particularly admire & identify with them. This belief is expressed in
social learning theory.
15. According to Piaget, an infant 1st comes to know the world through:
sucking & grasping.
naming & counting.
instruction from parents.
16. Of the following terms, which one does not describe a stage of Freudís theory of childhood sexuality?
17. Behaviorists have found that they can often solve a personís psychological problems by:
analyzing the client.
altering the environment.
administering well designed punishments.
admitting the existence of the unconscious.
18. When an individualís existing understanding no longer fits his or her present experiences, the result is called
a psychological crisis.
19. The zone of proximal development refers to:
the influence of a pleasurable stimulus on behavior.
the tendency of a child to model an admired adults behavior.
a stage during which a child exhibits preoperational thinking.
the range of skills a child can do with assistance but cannot
20. Which developmental theory suggests that each person is born with genetic possibilities that must be nurtured in order to growth?
21. Freud is to oral as Erikson is to _________________.