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Links:      •  Memory - Self Test
                •  Memory (Print Ready)
                 •  Memory Types Index

Ψ  Memory
- Long-term Memory -

Three types of memory each with a different function

Ψ  Long-Term Memory: Storing

Steps in the memory process:

1. Sensory memory
     2. Attention
         3. Short-term memory
             4. Encoding
                 5. Long-term memory
                     6. Retrieval

Ψ  Features of long-term memory

• Has infinite capacity & permanence.
  • Has retrieval capability & varying accuracy of recall.
    • Primacy versus Recency - what was first & what is most recent
       is remembered best, the middle gets tromped on.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

Primacy 70%, Recency 60%

Declarative Memory

    • Declarative memory is the aspect of long term-memory that stores facts & events. It applies to standard textbook learning & knowledge. It is based on pairing the stimulus & the correct response, e.g. the question "What is the capital of England?" and the answer "London". The name declarative comes from the fact that we can explicitly "ask" our brain to make a connection between a pair of stimuli. Declarative memory is subject to forgetting & requires repetition to last for years. Declarative memories are best established by using active recall combined with mnemonic techniques & spaced repetition.

Long-term declarative memory types:

        • Episodic memory - represents our memory of events & experiences in a serial form. It is from this memory that we can reconstruct the actual events that took place at a given point in our lives.
        • Semantic memory - is a structured record of facts, concepts, words, definitions, language rules & skills that we have acquired. The information in semantic memory is derived from that in our own episodic memory, such that we can learn new facts or concepts from our experiences.

Procedural or Nondeclarative memory - provides for retention of skills not requiring conscious thought.

    While declarative memory involves conscious recollection of information (such as explicit rules of a task), nondeclarative (procedural) memory involves the development of familiarity & improved performance on a task after repeated exposure or practice. Learning a skill involves a transition from a task that relies on declarative memory to a more automatized task that relies on nondeclarative memory.

LTM Organization

Ψ  Long-term Memory Organization

General Psychology
Robert C. Gates