- Sexual Behavior -
Sexual Behavior - Three factors:
1. Genetic sex factors
Differentiation: male & female
Importance of testosterone
2. Biological sex factors:
3. Psychological sex factors:
1st step: gender identity
2nd step: gender roles
3rd step: sexual orientation (preference)
Two theories of male-female differences in sexual pursuits:
Social Role Theory: This is the principle that men & women behave differently in social situations & take different roles, due to the expectations that society puts upon them (including gender stereotyping). This includes women taking positions of lower power, meeting ‘glass ceilings’, having home-making roles, etc.
Three common patterns are:
• Women take on more domestic tasks
• In occupations, women often have lower status
• Women & men often have different occupational roles.
Evolutionary theory: uses reproductive goals as well as genetic & biological factors to explain the behavior. Sociobiology says that the double standard for male promiscuity has a biological basis — it is not moral or immoral; it simply is a strategy that produces more children.
Homosexuality - sexual attraction to or sexual relations with members of the same sex.
Sexual response: problems & treatments:
Paraphilias are sometimes referred to as sexual deviations or perversions including fantasies, behaviors, or sexual urges focusing on unusual objects, activities, or situations.
Sexual dysfunctions - problems of sexual arousal or organism.
Organic factors - refers to medical problems.
Psychological factors - refer to performance anxiety, sexual trauma, guilt, or failure to communicate.
Four-stage model of human sexual response (Masters & Johnson)
1st - Excitement
2nd - Plateau
3rd - Orgasm
4th - Resolution - return to normal
Two common sexual problems:
Premature (rapid) ejaculation
Inhibited female orgasm
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) positive - To have the virus that causes AIDS.
AIDS - Acronym for Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome. An epidemic disease caused by an infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a retrovirus that causes immune system failure and debilitation and is often accompanied by cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma as well as secondary infections such as tuberculosis. AIDS is spread through direct contact with bodily fluids. Defined as a level of T cells no more than 200 per cubic milliliter of blood or has developed one or more of 26 specified illnesses such as pneumonia, skin cancer, etc.
Risk for AIDS - The CDC places 88% of American AIDS patients in two categories: men who have sex with men or injection drug users. Just 10% of Americans diagnosed with AIDS cite heterosexual contact as their only risk and of these, close to half (4%) mention sexual relations with users of injection drugs.
Progression of the disease: A person is diagnosed with AIDS when he/she has HIV plus one or more of the illnesses specific to the syndrome. At this stage a person has generally been living with HIV for many years and the immune system is severely damaged. In most cases one of the "opportunistic infections" will eventually cause the death of the person living with AIDS.
Treatment - While AIDS is a fatal illness, some drugs are now being used that can reduce HIV's damage to the immune system, delay symptoms, prevent "opportunistic infections," & prolong life.