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- Humanistic Theories -

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Three characteristics of humanistic theories:

1. Phenomenological perspective - perception (even if inaccurate) is reality!
1. Holistic view
1. Self-actualization - need to be all you can be!

Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs:

Major areas: Deficiency needs (levels 1,2,3,4) - Growth needs (level 5)

The Hierarchy (top down):


 •  Self-actualization
     •  Esteem
         •  Love & belonging
             •  Safety
                 •  Physiological


Carl Rogers: Self theory (self-actualization theory)

•  Link to more information on Carl Rogers

     Rogers sees people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill. In other words, he sees mental health as the normal progression of life, and he sees mental illness, criminality, and other human problems, as distortions of that natural tendency. Roger's self-actualizing tendency can be defined as the built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible.


Note: Projective tests such as the Rorschach inkblot test & the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) tend to have relativity low reliability & validity, however combined with other assessment techniques they can be helpful.

General Psychology
Robert C. Gates