Ψ Practice Test
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Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you are right.
1. Sheila almost got hit by a car at the street corner because she was too busy texting on her phone. From that day on, Sheila looks before she reaches the street corner. Her change in behavior is the result of
2. A relatively enduring change in behavior that results from previous experience with certain stimuli & responses is the definition of
3. At home, you rattle the chain on your dog's leash every time you
prepare to take him for a walk. After several episodes like this, you find that your dog comes running to the front door even when you pick up the leash to put it back in the closet. In this
example, what is the conditioned stimulus?
4. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in placing the emphasis on
5. A child has been classically conditioned to fear a white rat. If the child does not show fear when shown a black rat, this is called
6. Unconditioned is to conditioned as _______ is to ________.
7. During the cold winter, you have stopped taking your dog for walks. What's more, your dog has gotten used to the fact that when you accidentally rattle his leash, he isn't going for a walk, and subsequently he doesn't come running to the front door. What has occurred?
8. Robert is trying to remember the procedure used to establish classical conditioning. He would be best to remember
9. Ronda had tartar sauce with her fish one night. The next morning she was
nauseated and sick for much of the day. The next time she was offered the chance to go out for fish she felt queasy and declined. Her queasiness at the thought of fish with tartar sauce was probably due to
10. In classical conditioning, generalization is adaptive because
11. Caitlin works in the psychology department's rat lab. In her studies, she found that many of her lab rats would develop a conditioned taste aversion to certain foods after as little as one trail. Caitlin's psychology professor refers to this as a classic example of
12. Stimulus Discrimination is to narrow as Stimulus Generalization is to ________.
13. Blake finds that if he washes his car prior to going out on the town, more of his friends want to ride along with him. What theory would best explain his
willingness to always wash and clean his car before going out?
14. Law of effect is to ______ as operant conditioning is to _______.
15. In classical conditioning, behavior typically is ______________, whereas with operant behavior, behavior is ______________.
16. Reinforcement is to ___________, as punishment is to ___________.
17. Where do secondary
reinforces get their power from?
whether they be positive or negative, have the same effect on behavior, which is
19. Positive reinforcement results in a(an) __________ in the target behavior and negative reinforcement result in an __________ in the target behavior.
20. Kurt & Kyle are out walking. Kurt says, “Hey, I’ve got a pebble in my shoe,” and proceeds to take off his shoe and to remove the pebble. “That feels better,” says Kurt. Kyle believes that
Kurt's behavior of removing the pebble is a ____________ because it increases the chance that Kurt will repeat the behavior if another pebble gets in his shoe.
21. Belinda has a terrible headache. If she takes some aspirin so as to make her headache go away, this would be an example of
22. What refers to removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response that decreases the odds that the response will recur?
23. Ben gets paid every 2 weeks. In one 2 week period he works a total of 20 hours. During another 2 week period he works a total of 50 hours. Regardless of the total number of hours he works each week, he is paid every 2 weeks. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?
24. When is continuous reinforcement most appropriate?
25. Denise is grounded for coming home after curfew. Additionally her parents have taken away her cell phone for a month. Losing her cell phone privileges is an example of
26. After a period of extinction, a temporary recovery in rate of responding is called
27. What is the relationship between negative reinforcement and punishment?
28. Which of the following theorists argued that learning can take place when someone is watching another person and performs that behavior even when not reinforced?
29. Studies by Keller and Marian Breland found that many animals
exhibit instinctive drift. What does this mean?
important conclusion from the Bandura Bobo doll
study is that
31. Jose was lying in bed when he suddenly realized how he might deal with a fast approaching deadline at work. When his coworker asked how he came up with his idea, he said, "It just came to be out of nowhere." Psychologists would refer to this as
32. I know and understand this material,” says Rick. His instructor would agree with him. But when it comes time to prove his understanding on the exam, he typically doesn’t do well. This exemplifies the idea of
33. Jody failed repeatedly in college algebra. Finally, she gave up and was seriously considering dropping out of college. One day, her best friend offered to personally help her if she signed up for college algebra again, but she refused. What concept might explain her reluctance?
34. The four processes necessary for observational learning are attention, memory, imitation, and ___________.
35. What does AMID stand for?
36. “Ah ha!” is to ______ as reinforcement is to _______.
37. Darla has noticed how some of her friends have lost weight and gotten trim by exercising 1-2 hours each day. However, she has no plans to imitate their behavior. What component of Bandura's model of observational learning will
explain why Darla has not started a similar weight loss program?
38. A newsletter article has the headline, “Scientists find innate tendency that helps learning.” You realize that the “innate tendency” refers to
39. Spanking is an example of
40. With operant conditioning ___________ are important in forming an association, whereas with classical conditioning __________ are important in forming an association.
Robert C. Gates
So when the Angel of the darker Drink
At last shall find you by the river-brink,
And, offering his Cup, invite your Soul
Forth to your Lips to quaff---you shall not shrink.
- Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam