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decorative star graphic Practice Test for the
Introduction to Development
The Science of Human Development

Ψ  Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Chapter 1 & are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam one. You can, in fact, expect to see a few of these very same questions on that exam. Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

    Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. Click on your choice to see if you are right.

1. Which of the following could be called the ecological context of development?

•  personal choices
 •  physical maturation
  •  genetic programming
   •  physical surroundings

2.  What are the connections between various microsystems of Bronfenbenner's ecological model called?

•  ecology
 •  exosystem
  •  mesosystem
   •  macrosystem

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

3.  The primary focus for developmental scientists is

•  how research changes from decade to decade & century to century.
 •  continuity & change in individuals from one day, year, or generation to the next.
  •  the ways that experiences of childhood determine later personality.
   •  the interaction of biology, psychology, & sociology.

4.  Many assumptions about the proper role of people of different ages, sexes, or ethnicity, such as that the husband should be the major wage earner, are

•  social constructions.
 •  genetically based.
  •  cultural artifacts.
   •  universally accepted

5.  As of 1998, what age group has the greatest percentage of people living in poverty?

•  people under the age of 10
 •  people in their 40s
  •  people in their 60s
   •  people 80 & older

6.  Naturalistic observation permits

•  the determination of cause-and-effect.
 •  the study of subjects in their usual settings.
  •  the manipulation of variables.
   •  control of the environment.

7.  When a research finding has a .001 level of significance the result would occur by chance less than once in

•  one thousand times.
 •  one hundred times.
  •  ten times.
   •  1/1000 times.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

8.  In an experiment the dependant variable is

•  the person or persons receiving the treatment.
 •  any unmeasured factor that can affect the result.
  •  that is being manipulated.
   •  the variable being studied.

9.  In a case study you always want to

•  insure a "blind" study.
 •  insure a large sample size.
  •  do an intensive study of one person.
   •  insure a representative sample.

10.  Unlike other research types, cross-sequential design allows researchers to

•  reduce sample bias.
 •  eliminate cohort deference.
  •  look for gender differences.
   •  combine longitudinal & cross-sectional research.

11.  A hypothesis is best defined as

•  a theory.
 •  a conclusion.
  •  research evidence.
   •  a specific prediction that can be tested.

12.  An understanding of dynamic systems leads to the next understanding that a small gesture, or a single spoken word, may have a profound effect on a child. This insight regarding change is called

•  interacting systems.
 •  the butterfly effect.
  •  the power of continuity.
   •  ecological understanding.

13.  The socioeconomic status (SES) of a family is

•  determined by the income & occupation of the head of the household.
 •  determined by education & neighborhood.
  •  also related to past history & future prospects.
   •  all of the above.

14.  Ethics in conducting & reporting research implies

•  the use of "informed consent".
 •  being mindful of the social, political, & human implications of the study.
  •  do no harm.
   •  all of the above.

15.  The type of research that studies changes over time includes all the following basic designs except

•  longitudinal.
 •  correlational.
  •  cross-sequential.
   •  cross-sectional.

16.  The study & understanding of temperament belongs in the

•  physical domain.
 •  biosocial domain.
  •  cognitive domain.
   •  psychosocial domain.

17.  People that share the same time in history & similar attitudes are demonstrating

•  their SES.
 •  the cohort effect.
  •  a social construct.
   •  the ecological perspective.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

18.  Which of the following would be of most interest to a psychologist studying behavior from the biological perspective?

•  Computer modeling of mental processes
 •  Unconscious influences on behavior
  •  Hormonal influences on behavior
   •  Cognitive influences on behavior

19.  Essentially, a cognitive psychologist is interested in the origins & consequences of

•  thought.
 •  emotion.
  •  genetic dispositions.
   •  unconscious behavior.

20.  The usefulness of case studies is limited because they often

•  require extensive training to comprehend.
 •  describe the causes of behavior, but not the forms of behavior.
  •  describe the behavior of large populations of individuals who exhibit some  
      psychological problem.

   •  describe the behavior of individuals who may not be representative of the rest of the
        population being studied.

21.  Which of the following perspectives uses theories that are least likely to be testable?

•  The learning perspective
 •  The cognitive perspective
  •  the biological perspective
   •  The psychodynamic perspective

22.  Developmentalists who carefully observe the behavior of schoolchildren during recess are using a research method known as

•  the case study.
 •  cross-sectional research.
  •  scientific observation.
   •  cross-sequential research.

23.  Developmental psychologists explore three areas of development. They are

•  physical, cognitive, & psychosocial.
 •  biosocial, cognitive, & emotional.
  •  biosocial, cognitive, & psychosocial.
   •  physical, biosocial, & cognitive.

24.  Which of the following would most likely be investigated by use of a case study?

•  the effects of caffeine on memory
 •  the extent of marijuana usage in the general population
  •  a rare psychological problem such as multiple personality
   •  the correlation between hours sleep per night & the grade point averages of college students

25.  The survey method involves

•  Careful questioning of a representative sample of people.
 •  An overview of the attitudes and backgrounds of selected groups.
  •  An in-depth study of the opinions and attitudes of a selected individual.
   •  Direct observation and recording of a representative sample of behavior.

26.  One of the advantages of the experimental method is that

•  Clearer cause-and-effect relationships can be identified.
 •  It allows the investigation of rare or unusual problems or events.
  •  It allows information about large numbers of people to be gathered.
   •  All of the above

27.  In an experiment to find out if taking LSD increases IQ scores, the IQ scores would be

•  a control variable.
 •  an extraneous variable.
  •  the dependent variable.
   •  the independent variable.

28.  To be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship exists, it is necessary to

•  develop a positive correlation.
 •  test for a negative correlation.
  •  perform a controlled experiment.
   •  engage in naturalistic observation.

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

29.  Students who do better in high school tend to do better in college. This is an example of a

•  zero correlation.
 •  perfect correlation.
  •  positive correlation.
   •  negative correlation.

30.  In observational research there are no

•  variables.
 •  statistical tests.
  •  standardized tests.
   •  operational definitions..
    •  experimental manipulations.

31.  The research method in which subjects of different ages are studied simultaneously & at one point in time to examine the effects of age on an aspect of behavior is known as

•  cross-age design.
 •  cross-sectional design.
  •  cross-cultural research.
   •  cross-sequential design.

32.  Which of the following ideas is central to the ecological perspective?

•  Development occurs in context.
 •  Humans are biologically predisposed to seek reinforcers.
  •  Social behaviors are, in large part, determined by the processes of natural selection.
   •  In order to understand human behavior, we need to consider both immediate &
       evolutionary causes.

33.  What rights are accorded children who participate in psychological experiments?

•  Children have the right to discontinue participation at any time.
 •  Children have the right to refuse to participate in the experiment.
  •  Children have the right to be told as much about the experimental procedures as is
      feasible & in terms they can understand.

    •  All of the above

34.  In an experiment the comparison group is also known as the

•  experimental group.
 •  results group.
  •  dependant group.
   •  control group.

35.  Which of the following can be said of a case study?

•  A case study is used to understand a particular individual very well.
 •  A case study can be used to provide a provocative starting point for other research.
  •  When doing a case study no confident conclusions about people in general can be

    •  The collection & interpretations of case-study findings reflect the biases as well as the
       wisdom of the researcher.

      •  All of the above

36.  Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to its nonlinear progression?

•  plasticity
 •  multicultural
  •  multicontextual
   •  multidirectional
    •  multidisciplinary

37.  Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to the idea that different academic disciplines contribute data & insight to the science of development?

•  plasticity
 •  multicultural
  •  multicontextual
   •  multidirectional
    •  multidisciplinary

38.  Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to the idea that people change?

•  plasticity
 •  multicultural
  •  multicontextual
   •  multidirectional
    •  multidisciplinary

39.  Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to the idea that development reflects a multitude of values, traditions, & tools for living?

•  plasticity
 •  multicultural
  •  multicontextual
   •  multidirectional
    •  multidisciplinary

40.  Which of the following life-span developmental characteristics refers to the idea that development takes place in a number of historical, cultural, & socioeconomic settings?

•  plasticity
 •  multicultural
  •  multicontextual
   •  multidirectional
    •  multidisciplinary

41.  Which of the following perspectives recognizes a "reciprocal connection" between the study of childhood & the study of adulthood?

•  the life-span perspective
 •  the scientific perspective
  •  the socioeconomic perspective
   •  the cultural-historical perspective

42.  Which of the following terms defines an idea that is build more on shared perceptions than on objective reality?

•  social convoy
 •  social construct
  •  butterfly effect
   •  socioeconomic status (SES)

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

43.  Which of the following is a theorem of chaos theory, & states that small variations in the initial conditions of a dynamical system can produce large variations in the results?

•  cohort effect
 •  butterfly effect
  •  replication effect
   •  dynamic systems effect

44.  A strong correlation between variables X & Y implies

•  high scores on the X are associated with high scores on the Y.
 •  low scores on the X are associated with low scores on the Y.
  •  X is not a good predictor of Y.
   •  X is a good predictor of Y.

45.  The correlation between two variables that are totally unrelated would be

•  positive.
 •  negative.
  •  inverse.
   •  zero.

46.  Another name for a hypothesis is

•  data.
 •  a question.
  •  an observation.
   •  an educated guess.

47.  Which of the folowing questions cannot be answered by an experiment?

•  Is rabies caused by a virus?
 •  Can radiation cause cancer?
  •  Did a comet impact kill the dinosaurs?
   •  Does penicillin kill Salmonella bacteria?

48.  What is the over-riding principle governing ethical research behavior?

•  To avoid dealing with sensitive topics.
 •  To preserve the anonymity of your participants.
  •  To obtain the informed consent of the participants.
   •  To protect research participants & their communities from harm.

49.  Which of the following is not an ethical practice?

•  Keeping your data under lock & key.
 •  Using pseudonyms to protect participants from being identified.
  •  Sharing data with other organizations who have a legitimate interest in your research.
   •  Obtaining someone's informed consent to participate in your research project prior to
       the project starting.

50.  Which of the following is not a major context within multicontextual development?

•  gender
 •  cultural
  •  historical
   •  socioeconomic

It's a Mickey Mouse World , isn't it?

51.  An advantage of qualitative research methods over quantitative research methods is that

•  numbers can be easily summarized, compared, & charted.
 •  qualitative research reflects cultural & contextual complexity.
  •  qualitative research is easier to replicate than quantitative research.
   •  qualitative research is less vulnerable to bias than quantitative research.

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Lifespan Growth & Development
Robert C. Gates
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity.  -- Freud

New It is impossible to overlook the extent to which civilization is built upon a renunciation of instinct.

- Sigmund Freud